The world’s first air-mail service was started in India at Allahabad; on 18th Feb 1911 on the occasion of Kumbh mela
Regular airmail services were started by Tata Sons Ltd, between Karachi and Madrasand.
On 24th Jan 1920 Royal air force started regular airmail services
Urmila K.Parikh became the first Indian woman to get a pilot’s license.
in 1945 the Deccan Airways was founded – jointly owned by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Tata.Its first flight began in July 1946.
All the airway companies were nationalized in 1953 and were put under two corporations namely – Indian Airlines and Air India.
Air India provides international air services.
Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Corporation in its offshore operations, to inaccessible areas and difficult terrains like the north-eastern states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
Indian Railways is one of the largest PSU in the Country
The Indian Railways route length network is spread over 115,000 km, with 12,617 passenger trains and 7,421 freight trains each day from 7,349 stations plying 23 million travelers and 3 million tonnes (MT) of freight daily.
The first train ran from Mumbai to Thane in 1853, a distance of 34 km.
The northern plains because of its vast leveled land, high population density and rich agricultural resources worked as a favorable condition for their growth.
In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.
Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material is called manufacturing
Manufacturing industries acts as a backbone for the development of a nation .
Relation Between Growth of agriculture and industries
The development of agriculture depend on the development of Manufacturing industries and both move hand in hand.
They depend on the latter for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers
For example the demand of a motor pump for agriculture leads to increase in the production of Motor pump.
The share in GDP by the manufacturing sector has remained stagnantin recent years which is a concern for the nation .
The growth rate is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where the contribution of the manufacturing sector is 25 to 35 per cent.
The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC)has been set up as an effort by the Govt. to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.
Factors affecting location of an Industry
The location of an industry is affected by availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc.
It is not possible to find all the factors at one place so industries tend to locate at such a place so that most of these are available or at least these factors can be arranged at a minimal cost
Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies. Gradually, a large industrial agglomeration takes place.
The population growth or population change refers to the change in number of inhabitants of an area or territory during a specific period of time.
This change may be positive as well as negative.
Population change in an area is an important indicator of economic development, social upliftment and historical and cultural background of the region
Components of Population Change
There are three components of population change – births, deaths and migration
Birth Rate – Expressed as number of live births in a year per thousand of population.
Death Rate – expressed in terms of number of deaths in a particular year per thousand of population in a particular region
Migration: Apart from birth and death there is another way by which the population size changes .who move out of a place are called Emigrants. People migrate for a better economic and social life.
Factors that influence migration
The Push factors make the place of origin seem less attractive for reasons like unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.
The Pull factors make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin for reasons like better job opportunities and living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.
Alpine Vegetation • Height: At high altitudes, more than 3600m above Mean Sea Level.
• Temperate grasslands & forests give way to alpine vegetation. • Trees:
1. Silver fir
• Trees get Stunted progressively as they approach snow line.
• Ultimately, through Shrubs & Scrubs, they merge into Alpine Grasslands
• At higher altitudes, Mosses & Lichens form part of tundra. Animals
1. Kashmir Stag (Hangul)→ State animal of Jammu & Kashmir(Critically endangered)
2. Spotted Dear (Chital)→ Jinke in Kannada
3. Wild Sheep
4. Jack Rabbit
5. Tibetan Antelope (Chiru) – Ladakh, India
• Mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides.
• Mud & Silt get accumulated on such coasts.
• Roots: submerged under water.