Class 10th Class 6th Class 7th Geography

Structure and Interior of the Earth NCERT Notes on Geography

Interior of the Earth


Earths Structure
  • The internal structure of the earth is layered.
  • The Earth is generally divided into four major layers: the crust, mantle, inner core, and outer core.
  • Earth’s crust is the outermost layer composed of various types of rocks.
  • Below the crust lies the Lithosphere
  • These lithospheric plates appear to “float” and move around on the more ductile asthenosphere
  • The boundary between the crust and mantle is generally called the Mohorovičić discontinuity
  • The continental crust is thicker in comparison to oceanic crust.
  • The lithosphere is the upper 80 Kilometers layer composed of both the crust and part of the upper mantle
  • Earth’s mantle is a rocky shell about 2,890 Kms thick that constitutes about 84 percent of Earth’s volume.
  • The outer core is in the liquid state.
  • The inner core is in solid-state.

Earth’s Crust-

  • There are two types of earth’s crust
Oceanic Crust Continental Crust
  • The oceanic crust is thinner
  • It is composed of basalt
  • It has a high density
  • The continental crust is thicker
  • It is composed of Granite
  • It has low density
  • The low density helps it to flow over the oceanic crust


Earth’s Mantle

  • Earth’s mantle has olivine rock.
  • The temperatures increase with depths.
  • The temperature is lowest near the crust and increases with depth.
  • The highest temperatures are found near the mantle material as it is in contact with the heat-producing core.
  • This steady increase of temperature with depth is known as the geothermal gradient.
  • This temperature difference responsible for different rock behaviors, and the different rock behaviors are used to divide the mantle into two different zones.
  • Rocks in the upper mantle are cool and brittle, while rocks in the lower mantle are hot and soft (but not molten).
  • Rocks in the upper mantle are brittle enough to break under stress and produce earthquakes.
  • However, rocks in the lower mantle are soft and flow when subjected to forces instead of breaking.
  • The lower limit of brittle behavior is the boundary between the upper and lower mantle.

Earth’s Core

  • It is composed of alloys of iron and nickel
  • the core gives heat to the inside of earth
  • the radioactive material which is present inside it release heat as they break down into more stable substances.
  • The core is divided into two different zones.
  • The outer core is a liquid because the high temperatures melt the iron-nickel alloy.
  • The inner core is a solid even though its temperature is higher than the outer core because of very high pressure from the weight of rocks lying above it .

Mineral and Energy Resources : NCERT Geography Lesson For class 10th

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Class 10th Geography

Airways and Communication :Life Line Of National Economy .NCERT Notes in Geography


  • The world’s first air-mail service was started in India at Allahabad; on 18th Feb 1911 on  the occasion of Kumbh mela
  • Regular airmail services were started by Tata Sons Ltd, between Karachi and Madrasand.
  • On 24th Jan 1920 Royal air force started regular airmail services
  • Urmila K.Parikh became the first Indian woman to get a pilot’s license.
  • in  1945 the Deccan Airways was founded – jointly owned by the Nizam of Hyderabad and Tata.Its first flight began in July 1946.
  • All the airway companies were nationalized in 1953 and were put under two corporations namely – Indian Airlines and Air India.
  • Air India provides international air services.
  • Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Corporation in its offshore operations, to inaccessible areas and difficult terrains like the north-eastern states and the interior parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand

Read the Previous part here

Kalinga Airlines and Biju Pattanaik 

  • Kalinga Airlines was a private airline based in Calcutta, India.
  • It was founded in 1947 by aviator and politician Biju Patnaik, who was also the airline’s chief pilot.
  • The airline was nationalized and merged into Indian Airlines in 1953.
  • It restarted operations as a non-scheduled charter operator in 1957 and flew passengers and cargo until 1972.



  • Communication is the act of transferring information from one place, person or group to another.
  • The Indian postal network is one of the largest network in the world.
  • It handles parcels ,personal written communications.
  • Cards and envelopes are considered first–class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
  • The second–class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.

  • James Augustus Hickey is considered as the “father of Indian press”
  • He was the founder of the first Indian newspaper from Calcutta, the `Bengal Gazette` or the `Calcutta General Advertise` in January 1780.

Mass Communication 

  • Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies.
  • It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films.
  •  All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people.
  • Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world.

  • India is the largest producer of feature films in the world It produces short films; video feature films and video short films.
  • The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films
Data Courtesy- Business Standard
Class 10th Geography

Railways And Waterways :Lifelines of National Economy Geography Notes on NCERT


  • Indian Railways is one of the largest PSU in the Country
  • The Indian Railways route length network is spread over 115,000 km, with 12,617 passenger trains and 7,421 freight trains each day from 7,349 stations plying 23 million travelers and 3 million tonnes (MT) of freight daily.
  • The first train ran from Mumbai to Thane in 1853, a distance of 34 km.
  • The northern plains because of its vast leveled land, high population density and rich agricultural resources worked as a favorable condition for their growth.
  • In the hilly terrains of the peninsular region, railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels.

Read The First Part Heree Life Line of National Economy : Geography Notes for Class 10th NCERT

Gauges (Highest to Lowest)

1. Broad gauge (1.676m)→ 46,807km
2. Metro Gauge (1m)→ 13,209km
3. Narrow Gauge (0.762 & 0.610m)→ 3,124km

  • In south the first line was opened on Ist July, 1856 by the Madras Railway Company.
  • It ran between Vyasarpadi Jeeva Nilayam (Veyasarpandy) and Walajah Road (Arcot), a distance of 63 miles.
  • In the North a length of 119 miles of line was laid from Allahabad to Kanpur on 3rd March 1859.
  • The first section from Hathras Road to Mathura Cantonment was opened to traffic on 19th October, 1875.


Facts to Note on Indian Railway

  1. Indian Railways has a mascot – Bholu, the Guard Elephant.
  2. Dibrugarh Kanyakumari Vivek Express the longest train route in the Indian Subcontinent.
  3. Venkatanarasimharajuvaripeta railway station has the longest name among all stations on the Indian Railway system.
  4. Mughalsarai Junction railway station contains the largest railway marshaling yard in Asia.
  5. Gorakhpur Junction railway station has the world’s longest railway platform with length of 1,366.33 m.
  6. The Slowest train in India is the Metupalayam Ooty Nilgiri passenger train.
  7. Howrah is the busiest railway station in the nation train frequency of 974.
  8. Ghum Railway station of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway is the highest railway station in India.


  • Pipelines are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants
  • Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
  • Initial cost of laying pipelines is high but subsequent running costs are minimal.
  • It rules out transshipment losses or delays.
Gas Pipeline Map of India
Gas Pipeline Map of India

Important Networks

1. From Oil field in Upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
– Via Guwahati, Barauni, Allahabad
– Branches
• Barauni to Haldia, Via Rajband
• Rajband to Maurigram
• Guwahati to siliguri

2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab
– Via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi, Sonipat.
– Branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat), Chakshu & other places.

3. Gas Pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh
• It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan and  Shahajahanpur, Babrales etc in Uttar Pradesh


  • Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
  • They are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.

    National Waterways

Image Courtesy
  1. Ganga River between Allahabad & Haldia→ NW : 1 (1620km)
  2. Brahmaputra River between Sodiya & Dhubri (891km)→ NW: 2
  3. The West – Coast canal in Kerala (Kottapurma – Komman, Udyogamandal & Champakkara Canals – 205km) – NW:3
  4. Specified stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals (1078 km) – N.W. No.4
  5. Specified stretches of river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and East Coast Canal (588 km) – N.W. No.5

Major Sea Ports

  • India has  12 Major & 181 medium & minor ports
  1. Kandla in Kuchchh was the first port developed soon after Independence to ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, in the wake of loss of Karachi port to Pakistan after the Partition.
  2. Mumbai (Maharashtra)→ 4th highest cargo handling
    • Biggest port with natural & well – sheltered harbour.
    – South of Mumbai, Largest Container Port in India, serve as a hub port.
  3. Marmagao Port (Goa) – Premier Iron Ore exporting port of India.
    Accounts for 50% of India’s iron ore export.
  4. New Mangalore Port(Karnataka) – Export  iron ore from Kudremuch mines.
  5.  Kochchi Port (Kerala) –  Located at entrance of lagoon with a Natural Harbour.
  6. Paradwip port ( Odisha) – specialises in the export of iron ore.
  7. Kolkata is an inland riverine port. This port serves a very large and rich hinterland of Ganga- Brahmaputra basin.
  8. Tuticorin Port (Tamil Nadu) Handles large cargoes to even Srilanka, Maldives etc &
  9. Vishakapatnam Port is 5th highest cargo handling . It is Deepest landlocked & well – protected port.

Read the Last Part of Life Line of National Economy Here 

Class 10th Geography

Life Line of National Economy : Geography Notes for Class 10th NCERT

Lifelines of National Economy

  • Goods and services are transported using three modes of transport.
  • According to the medium , transport can be classified into land water and air transport.

Means of Transport

  1. Land

2. Water

Inland and Overseas

3. Air
Domestic Airways


  • India has one of the largest road networks in the world,of about 2.3 million km in length
  • They still have an edge over railways in view of the ease with which they can be built and maintained.

Reasons for Growing Importance of Road as compared to railways

  • Construction cost of Road is Much lower
  •  Roads can traverse – dissected, undulating topography
  • it is Economical and even suitable for Few persons, smaller goods for short distance
  •  it can be used for Door – to – door service and has Lower cost of loading & unloading.
  • it acts as Feeder service to other modes .

Classification of Roads

In India, roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity.

  1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
  2. National Highways
  3. State Highways
  4. District Roads
  5. Other Roads
  6. Border Roads
  1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways

  • It is a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways.
  • The North-South corridors link Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu)
  • East-West Corridor connect Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat)
  • The project is implemented by National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

2. National Highways

  • National Highways link extreme parts of the country.
  • These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
  • A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East-West directions.

National Highway New Numbering System 

  • on 28 April 2010 the highway numbering system introduced .
  • As per the new numbering system, All major Highways will be single digit or double digit and also based on the orientation and the geographic location of the highway.
  • NH 44 – 3,745 km (Old NH 7) – It is the longest National Highway in India, starts from Srinagar and terminates in Kanyakumari.
  • Major stretch of NH 44 are part of North South Corridor and the Golden Quadrilateral,connects several important Indian cities from Srinagar to Kanyakumari.
  • National Highway 16 (NH 16) is a major National Highway in India, that runs along east coast of West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.[1] It was previously known as National Highway 5.
  • NH 19 – 1,435 km (Old NH 2) is  1,435 km long highway is one of the busiest National Highways in India
  • it runs through the major cities of Delhi, Agra, Varanasi, Barhi,Asansol and Kolkata.
  • It was part of the Golden Quadrilateral and a major portion is the historical Grand Trunk Road

State Highways

  • Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways.
  • These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories.

District Roads:

  • These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district.
  • These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.

Other Roads:

  • Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category.
  • These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.

Border Roads:

  • Border Roads Organisation a Government of India undertaking constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country.
  • This organisation was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and northeastern border areas.

Road Density

  • The length of road per 100 sq. km of area is known as density of roads.

Read The Second Part Of the Topic on Railways and Waterways Here 


Mineral and Chemical Based industries – NCERT Notes on Geography

Mineral based Industries

Iron and Steel Industry

  • As all other industries heavy,medium and light depend on the iron and still industry it is also called basic industry
  • Production and consumption of steel is often taken as the index of a country’s development.
  • for the production of steel Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1

  • China is the largest producer of steel. China is also the world’s largest consumer of steel.

Read the Second  Part  on Classification of Industries Here

Why Chotanagpur region is suitable for Iron and Steel industries ?

  • Chotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.
  • It is largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry.
  • Low cost of iron ore, high grade raw materials in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market has helped in its concentration .


  • High costs & limited availability of coking coal
  • Low : Labour productivity
  • Poor infrastructure
  • Irregular supply of energy

Aluminium Smelting

  • 2nd most important metallurgical industry in India.
  • It is light, resistant to corrosion, good conductor, mallable, becomes strong when mixed with other metals
  • It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires
  • Aluminium smelting plants in the country are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Bauxite, the raw material used in the smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock.

Factors Affecting location of aluminium smelting industry

  • Regular supply of electricity
  • Assured source of raw material at minimum cost

Chemical Industries

  •  It is 3rd largest in Asia & 12th World in Size.
  • Inorganic Chemicals
    – Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, Soda Ash → Soap, detergents, glass, paper etc.
    – Widely spread over country
  • Organic Chemicals
    – Petrochemicals
    – Located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants

Fertilizer Industry 

  • The fertilizer industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers (mainly urea), phosphate fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP)
  • complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K)
  • The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.

Cement Industry

  • This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.
  • The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.
  •  The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
  • After Independence the industry expanded.
  • Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides.

Automobile Industry

  •  This industry had experienced a quantum jump in less than 15 years.
  • Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry

  •  Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
  • Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
  • It is encouraging to know that 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women
  • This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner for India

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

  • Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
  • Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust,
    sprays mist and smoke
  •  Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluent discharged into rivers.
  • Fly ash, phospo- gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.
  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. Soil and water pollution are closely related.

Class 10th Geography

Classification of Industries

Industries can be classified on the following lines

On the basis of source of raw materials used:

  •  Agro based: cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil
  •  Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals

According to their main role:

Read the First Part on Manufacturing Industry  here

  • Basic or key industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.
  • Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.

On the basis of capital investment:

  1. Small Scale→ Investment upto 1 Crore
  2. Large Scale→ more than 1 Crore
  3. Joint Sector Industries – Example:-Oil India Limited (OIL) => Public + Private

On the basis of ownership:

  1. Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
  2.  Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
  3.  Joint sector industries which are jointly run by a private and a government agency . ex. Maruti Suzuki

Textile Industries 

  • Textile industries it is second largest industry after agriculture .
  • The first mill was set up in Mumbai in 1854.
  • The demand of cloth in the united kingdom helped the development of cotton textile industries in India

Why most of the cotton textile industries is located in Maharashtra and Gujarat ?

  • The availability of raw cotton, market ,port facilities the moist climate contributed towards its localization.
  • India exports yarn to Japan as well as to USA, Russia, France, and other European and African countries.

Jute Textiles

  • in terms of jute Production India stands at number one position while, in terms of export India stands second to Bangladesh.
  • The first jute mill setup near Kolkata in 1859.
  • The jute industries had a back fall after partition
  • After partition the jute mills remained in India while 3/4 of jute production area went to Bangladesh.

Factors responsible for the location of jute industries around the Hoogly basin

  • proximity of the jute producing areas, cheap water transport, good network of railways, Roadways and waterways helped in transportation
  • Cheap labor from West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, helped in its growth.
  • The large urban centre of Kolkata prpvide Banking, Insurance,etc.
  • The recent growing global concern for environment led to the Re-opening of jute based products.

Sugar Industries.

  • India holds second position in production of sugar, while it occupies the top place in the production of gur, and khandasari.
  • As the raw material used is bulky and while transporting the sucrose content reduces therefore, majority of sugar mills are situated close to the cropping areas.
  • In recent years there is a shift of sugar mills towards southern and western states because
  • the growth of co-operative sector and government support
  • The produced cane has a higher sucrose content
  • The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season

Challenges to sugar industries.

  • Old and in-efficient methods of production
  • Seasonal nature of the industries
  • Delay in transport leading to loss in sucrose content


Read The Last part On chemical and Cement industries Here

Class 10th Geography

Manufacturing Industries and Factors Affecting Locations of Industry

Manufacturing Industries

  • Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw material is called manufacturing
  • Manufacturing industries acts as a backbone for the development of a nation .

Relation Between Growth of agriculture and industries 

  • The development of agriculture depend on the development of Manufacturing industries and both move hand in hand.
  • They depend on the latter for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc. to the farmers
  • For example the demand of a motor pump for agriculture leads to increase in the production of Motor pump.

The share in GDP by the manufacturing sector has remained stagnant in recent years which is a concern for the nation .

GDP Share of Various Sector
GDP Share of Various Sector
  • The growth rate is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where the contribution of the manufacturing  sector is 25 to 35 per cent.
  • The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up as an effort by the Govt.  to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.

Factors affecting location of an Industry 

  • The location of an industry is affected by availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc.
  • It is not possible to find all the factors at one place so industries tend to locate at such a place so that most of these are  available or at least these factors can be arranged at a minimal cost
  • Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies. Gradually, a large industrial agglomeration takes place.

Read the Second Part here on Classification of Industries 

Class 9 Geography

Population Composition and Literacy Rates in India

Sex Ratio – In India sex ratio is the number of females per thousand males

  • In regions where gender discrimination is rampant, the sex ratio is generally poor .
  • The low number of males in the populations of many European countries show better status of women, and an excessively male-dominated out-migration to different parts of the world in the past.

Read the First Part Here  Population Composition :Geography Notes on NCERT

Sex Ratio (Females/ 1000 Males)

Age Structure

  • Age structure shows the number of people of different age groups.
  • Dependent Population are 1. Children who are  Below 15 years and 2. Aged who are Above 59 years
  • Persons of age 15 – 59 years comes under Working age

Dependency Ratio – It is the ratio of People of dependent age to the Working age

Age-Sex Pyramid

Age Sex Pyramid
  • The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of females and males in different age groups.
  •  The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population.
  • The left side shows the percentage of males while the right side shows the percentage of female in each age group.
  • Expanding Populations: The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide base and usually found in less developed countries.
  • These have larger populations in lower age groups due to high birth rates.
  •  Constant population: Morocco’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and tapered towards the top.
  • This shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near constant population.
  • Declining Populations: A narrow base and a tapered top showing low birth
    and death rates. The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative.

State wise population composition of India 


Literacy Rate

A person aged 7 years & above who can read & write with understanding in any language is a literate .

National Population Policy (NPP) →2000

  •  Free & compulsory school education upto 14 years
  • Reducing IMR to below 30 per 1000 live births
  • Universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases
  •  Promoting delayed marriage for girls
  • Making family welfare a people – Centered Program.

NPP 2000 & Adolescents

  • It identified adolescents as one of major sections of population that need greater attention.
  •  Nutritional requirements
  • Protection from unwanted pregnancies & sexually transmitted diseases
  • Encouraging delayed marriage & child bearing
  •  Awareness about risk of unprotected sex
  • Making contraceptives accessible & affordable
  • Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage



Blog Class 9 Geography

Population Composition :Geography Notes on NCERT

Population and Census 

Census is the most comprehensive demographic, social & economic data of a country .

  • 1st Census held in the year 1872 in India .
  • 1st complete census held in the year 1881

Population distribution trend around the world

  • Broadly, 90 per cent of the world population lives in about 10 per cent of its land area.
  • The 10 most populous countries of the world have about 60 per cent of the world’s population .
  • 6 of the most populated countries are located in Asia .

Population Density

  • The ratio between the numbers of people living in an area of 1 sq Km is called population density.
  • Density of Population =Population/ Area

Trends in Population Density 

  • From the above data find out the population density of Srilanka
  • Which country has the highest population density
  • find out the rank of India in population density
  • What is the population density of China?
  • Name the neighboring countries of India which has high population density than India

Population Density Trend of India 

  • The population density of India in 2011 was 382 per sq km.

  • From the Above table Find out the state with high Population Density ?
  • Find out the Population Density of Odisha?
  • Find out the state which has lowest population Density ?
  • Which Union territory has lowest Population Density?
  • Find the percentage change of population density of Delhi from 2001 to 2011.

Factors affecting population density 

  • Population distribution across the Earth is not Uniform
  • There are areas which are densely populated whereas others are sparsely populated


  • Terrain:Plain areas encourage higher density of population as compared to mountain regions
  • Example More people live in Northen Plain Compared to north east regions
  • Climate: Suitable climate encourage population settlement.
  • Soil :Fertile soil Helps in Agriculture and population growth
  • Other factors are water bodies ,Communications. Industries affect population Density .

Agriculture: Geography Notes for Class 10th NCERT

Population growth

  • The population growth or population change refers to the change in number of inhabitants of an area or territory during a specific period of time.
  • This change may be positive as well as negative.
  • Population change in an area is an important indicator of economic development, social upliftment and historical and cultural background of the region

Components of Population Change

  • There are three components of population change – births, deaths and migration
  • Birth Rate –  Expressed as number of live births in a year per thousand of population.
  • Death Rate –  expressed in terms of number of deaths in a particular year per thousand of population in a particular region
  • Migration: Apart from birth and death there is another way by which the population size changes .who move out of a place are called Emigrants. People migrate for a better economic and social life.

 Factors that influence migration

  • The Push factors make the place of origin seem less attractive for reasons like unemployment, poor living conditions, political turmoil, unpleasant climate, natural disasters, epidemics and socio-economic backwardness.
  •  The Pull factors make the place of destination seem more attractive than the place of origin for reasons like better job opportunities and living conditions, peace and stability, security of life and property and pleasant climate.

Visit Here For the Second part  Part 

Montane and Mangrove Forest Notes on NCERT Geography

Class 9 Geography

Montane and Mangrove Forest Notes on NCERT Geography

Montane Forests

  • In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation.
  • As such, there is a succession of natural vegetation belts in the same order as we see from the tropical to the tundra region

Click here for the First of the Topic 

Wet Temperate Type of Forest

  • Found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres.
  • Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate.
शाहबलूत     shaahabaloot(Chestnut)

Temperate Forests Containing Coniferous Trees

  • Found between 1500 and 3000 metres
  • Trees:
    1. Pine
    2. Deodar
    3. Silver fir
    4. Spruce
    5. Cedar
    These Forests Cover:
    1. Southern slopes of Himalaya
    2. Places having high altitude in Southern & North – East India

Indian Deserts and Island Groups

Alpine Vegetation
• Height: At high altitudes, more than 3600m above Mean Sea Level.
• Temperate grasslands & forests give way to alpine vegetation.
• Trees:
1. Silver fir
2. Junipers
3. Pines
4. Birches
• Trees get Stunted progressively as they approach snow line.
• Ultimately, through Shrubs & Scrubs, they merge into Alpine Grasslands

Tundra Vegetation
• At higher altitudes, Mosses & Lichens form part of tundra.
1. Kashmir Stag (Hangul)→ State animal of Jammu & Kashmir(Critically endangered)
2. Spotted Dear (Chital)→ Jinke in Kannada
3. Wild Sheep
4. Jack Rabbit
5. Tibetan Antelope (Chiru) – Ladakh, India

Mangrove Forests

• Mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides.
• Mud & Silt get accumulated on such coasts.
• Roots: submerged under water.

India : Size and Location Geography Notes


  • The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishana, the Godavari and the Kaveri are covered by such vegetation.
  • In the Ganga- Brahamaputra delta, sundari trees are found, which provide durable
    hard timber.
  • Palm, coconut, keora, agar, also grow in some parts of the delta.
  • Royal Bengal Tiger is the famous animal in these forests.
  • Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests

Population Composition :Geography Notes on NCERT