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History Sample Papers

Test on Topic When Where and How? For Class 7th History

When Where and How ?

Test on Mediaval India For Class 7th NCERT

Before Attempting the Test Read the notes of this Topic Here

  1. Mediaeval period of indian history Started from which century? 1
  2. Who wrote the epic Rajatarngini? 1
  3. Gulvadan Begum wrote which Book? 1
  4. Who wrote Prithviraj raso? What does it tell about? 1
  5. How India got its name Hindustan? 2
  6. Name few rulers of early Medieval Period? 2
  7. India’s geographical location has had an important role in shaping its history. Discuss? 2
  8. How is travelogue an important literary source? 3
  9. How Archaeological sources help in tracing the history? 3
  10. India’s long coast line has been great advantage to the country. Why? 3
  11. How have coins and inscriptions contributed to our knowledge of history? 3
  12. What were the main changes that took places during the mediaeval period? 4
  13. Write a note on sources from which we derive the past of Medievel India? 4

 

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Tracing The Changes Through Thousand Years : Class 7th History Chapter 1 Notes

Medieval India Based on NCERT for Class 7th

The medieval period is divided into

  1. Early Medieval period
  2. Late Medieval Period

a. Early Medieval Period

  1. It is stretched from Eighth to thirteenth century
  2. The Palas,Pratiharas,Rastrakutas,Chola and the Rajputs were prominent Rulers in this period

b. Late Medieval Period

  1. It is stretched from Thirteenth  to Eighteenths  century
  2. The Turks,Afghans,and the Mughals are prominent rulers
Red Fort By Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
Constructed in 1639 by the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as the palace of his fortified capital Shahjahanabad

The Many Names of India

  • The First article of the constitution States ,”India , that is Bharat ,shall be a union of states.
  • Historically India was called Bharatvarsha and Jambudwipa .
  • India was also known as people living Living along the River Sindhu
  • Persian people Pronounced it Hindu and French people pronounced it Inde  which became India

Major Historical Developments Around the Medieval Period

  • The arrival of Muslims Led to the growth of A mixed cultures of Hindus and Muslims Known as Indian Culture.
  • The Mughals provided many centuries of political stability the country. This led to increase in trade and growth of towns and cities.
  • More trade helped in greater interaction between people from different parts of the world.
  • The Bhakti and Sufi movements spread the message of devotion to god and kindness towards all human beings.
Mira Bai Part of Bhakti Movement

Sources Of History

a. Archaeological and Literary Sources

  • Archaeological sources includes Temples,Palaces,Mosques,Forts,tombs,Coins,utensils,Paintings,tools,weapons,Inscriptions.
  • They give us an Idea of the Political ,Social,Economic,history of that time.
  • Many South Indian Rulers encouraged temple Building .
  • Paintings also help us to know Customs,food habits,dress,Jewellery,of the period.
  • Coins give us the date of various important political events.
  • A book on coins named Drarya-Pariksha written during the period of Alau-din-Khalji
  • Inscriptions from south India on temple walls and copper plates record proclamation by kings and gifts to temples and learned men .

Literary Sources

  • Paper was easily available during the Medieval Period.
  • Literary Sources includes Chronicles of Court Historians,Biographies, and Autobiogographies,farmans,letters,and Travelogues.

Chronicles-

  • It is a record of the life rule and life at the court.
  • Most of these writings are in Persians and Turkish.

 

Rajatarangini kalhana
Tarikh-al Hind Al-Beruni
Shah-Nama Firdausi
Futuhat-I FIroz Firzo Shah Tughluq
Baburnama Babur
Tuzuk-I Zahangiri Jahangir
Prithviraj Raso ChandBardai (Describe the life of Prithviraj Chauhan)
Humayunnama Gulbadan Begum((information about Life of Humayun)
Akkbarnama Abul Fazl

 

Raja Tarangini by Kalhana

Travelogue

  • The foreign travelers who visited India and people they met give us a lot of information .
  • Al-Beruni came from Central-Asia
  • Ibn-Batuta wrote Rihla mentions about Geography of India
  • Abdur Razzaq Visited Vijayanagar who was sent by the ruler of Persia
  • Marco polo ,Nicolo Conti ,Niccolao Manucci came from Italy.
  • William Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe came from England

Their Writings Give us a valuable resource for knowing the history of Mediaval Period.

Read Well? Now Appear the test Here to check your Knowledge….

Agriculture: Geography Notes for Class 10th NCERT

 

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Class 8th History Sample Papers

The Revolt of 1857: Short Questions For Class 8th History

The Revolt of 1857 Questions for Class 8th

  1. The Revolt against the British started in the year ______
  2. The Revolt started in which city.
  3. Who led the revolt in Awadh?
  4. What was Wahabi movement?
  5. Who was the last Mughal Emperor?
  6. Under whose command did the British army defeat the rebels in Lucknow?
  7. What the Bengal tenancy act of 1859 tried to ensure?
  8. What is Patriotism?
  9. The Revolt in Kanpur was led by whom?
  10. What was the official language in Bengal ,before English became the Official language?
  11. What is Doctrine of Lapse?
  12. Name any four places which were the main centers of Revolt?
  13. Who was the commander of Nana Saheb?
  14. Who became the viceroy of India after the revolt ?
  15. What is Nationalism?

Free Test for Social Science Class 10th NCERT

Civil Disobedience Movement and Peoples Participation Class 10th History

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Class 10th History

History for Class 10th NCERT : The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Nationalism in Europe and growth of Nationalism in Europe

  • Nineteenth Century was associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states.
  • Nationalism in Europe can be seen from the decline of Feudalism and the beginning of Renaissance.
  • The Renaissance in Europe fostered new political ideas.
  • Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1848 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics.

Nationalism is a feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one’s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.

  • The concepts of liberty, equality, fraternity and nationalism dominated the social and political scene of Europe in the 19th century.

French Revolution :

  • The French Revolution in 1789 was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe.
  • The major outcome of the revolution was the formation of a constitutional monarchy and a sizeable reduction in the royal and feudal privileges.

Constitutional monarchy, system of government in which a monarch shares power with a constitutionally organized government.

  • It paved the way for the achievement of bigger goals of national identity and national pride, which can be aptly called Nationalism.
  • After the French Revolution, emerged a famous historical personality and warrior, Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • He introduced several effective administrative changes like the Civil Code of 1804, also known as the Napoleonic Code.

Salient features of the French Revolution were:

  • Absolute monarchy in 1789 changed into sovereign system
  • Ideas of La patrie (the fatherland) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted.
  • Estates General elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  • French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s with a promise of Liberty the people from their despotic rulers.

Advent of Liberalism in Europe :

  • During the mid-18th century, Europe was divided into several small kingdoms and principalities.
  • The concept of nation-states did not exist at all.
  • People from diverse ethnic groups lived in Eastern and Central Europe.
  • The prominent empires in Europe were · the autocratic Ottoman Empire that ruled over Eastern and Central Europe, and Greece and the Habsburg Empire that ruled over Austria-Hungary.

Rise of Conservatism and Revolutionaries :

  • The middle class believed in freedom and equality of all individuals before law.
  • Liberalism was used to end the aristocracy and clerical privileges.
  • After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1815, the European government adopted the idea of conservatism.

Napoleon (1769-1821) ruled France from 1799 to 1815.

Achievements and policy of Napoleon

  • Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.
  • Introduced Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804).
  • Established equality before law and abolished all privileges based on birth.
  • Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom.
  • Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made mandatory.

Read about Modern History Here

Tit Bits on Triangular Slave Trade

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History

People’s Participation in the Movement and the Sense of Collective Belonging:NCERT History

How Different Groups Reacted

  • Farmers : For the farmers, the fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
  • When the movement was called off in 1931, without the revenue rates being revised, the farmers were highly disappointed.
  • Many of them refused to participate when the movement was re-launched in 1932.
  • The small tenants just wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted.
  • They often joined the radical movements which were led by Socialists and Communists.
  • Congress did not want to alienate the rich landlords and hence, the relationship between the poor peasants and Congress was uncertain.

  • Businessmen : The Indian merchants and industrialists could grow their business during the First World War
  • They were against those colonial policies which restricted their business activities.
  • They wanted protection against imports and a Rupee-Sterling Foreign Exchange ratio which would discourage imports.
  • The Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress was formed in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) was formed in 1927.
  • These were the results of attempts to bring the common business inter on a common platform.
  • For the businessmen, Swaraj meant an end to oppressive colonial policies.
  • They wanted an environment which could allow the business to flourish.
  • They were apprehensive of militant activities and of growing influence of socialism among the younger members of the Congress.

 

  • Industrial Workers : The industrial workers showed lukewarm response to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Since industrialists were closer to the Congress, workers kept a distance from the movement.
  • But some workers selectively participated in the Movement.
  • Congress did not want to alienate the industrialists and hence preferred to keep the workers’ demands at bay.

  • Women’s Participation : Women also participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement in large numbers.
  • However, most of the women were from high-caste families in the urban areas and from rich peasant households in the rural areas.
  • But for a long time, the Congress was reluctant to give any position of authority to women within the organization.
  • The Congress was just keen on the symbolic presence of women.
  • The Sense of Collective Belonging
  • Nationalist Movement Spreads when people belonging to different regions and communities begin to develop a sense of collective belongingness.
  • The identity of a nation is most often symbolized in a figure or image.
  • This image of Bharat Mata was first created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870 when he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ for our motherland.

  • Indian folk songs and folk sung by bards played an important role in making the idea of nationalism.
  • In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore and in Madras, Natesa, Sastri collection of folk tales and songs, this led the movement for folk revival.

  • During the Swadeshi Movement, a tri-color (red, green and yellow) flag was designed in Bengal.
  • It had eight lotuses representing eight provinces and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims.
  • Means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history.
  • The nationalist writers urged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievements in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions of life under British rule.

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Civil Disobedience Movement and Peoples Participation Class 10th History

Simon Commission

  • The British government constituted a Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon.
  • The Commission made to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
  • But since all members in the Commission were British, the Indian leaders opposed the Commission.
  • The Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928.
  • It was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon‘.
  • All parties joined the protest.
  • In October 1929, Lord Irwin announced a vague offer of ‘dominion status‘ for India but
    its timing was not specified.
  • He also offered to hold a Round Table Conference to discuss the future Constitution

Salt March (Beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement)

  • Mahatma Gandhi believed that salt could be a powerful symbol to unite the whole nation.
  • Most of the people including the British scoffed at the idea.
  • Abolition of the salt tax was among many demands which was raised by Gandhiji through a letter to Viceroy Irwin.
  • The Salt March or Dandi March was started by Gandhiji on 12th March 1930.
  • He was accompanied by 78 volunteers.
  • They walked for 24 days to cover a distance of 240 miles from Sabarmati to Dandi.
  • Many people joined them in the way.
  • On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji ceremonially violated the law by taking a fistful of salt
  • The Salt March marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Thousands of people broke the salt law in different parts of country.
  • People demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
  • Foreign clothes were boycotted.
  • Peasants refused to pay revenue.
  • Village officials resigned.
  • Tribal people violated forest laws
Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi,1869 – 1948), Indian nationalist and spiritual leader, leading the Salt March in protest against the government monopoly on salt production. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)

Response of British Rulers :

  • The colonial government began to arrest the Congress leaders.
  • This led to violent clashes in many places.
  • Mahatma Gandhi was arrested about a month later.
  • People began to attack the symbols of British rule; such as police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations.
  • The government repression was quite brutal.
  • Even women and children were beaten up.
  • About 100,000 people were arrested.

Round Table Conference :

  • When things began to take a violent turn, Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement
  • He signed a pact with Irwin on 5th March 1931.
  • This was called the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
  • As per the Pact,
  • Gandhi.agreed to participate in the Round Table Conference in London.
  • In lieu of that, the government agreed to release the political prisoners.
  • Gandhiji went to London in December 1931.
  • The negotiations broke down and Gandhiji had to return with disappointment.
  • When Gandhiji came back to India, he found that most of the leaders were Put in jail.
  • Congress had been Declared Illegal .
  • Gandhiji was arrestedas soon as he reached Bombay.

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Nationalism in India and Effects of First World War Notes

Effects of First World War on India

  • The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure.
  • This was financed by war loans and by increasing taxes.
  • Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced to raise extra revenue.
  • Prices of items increased during the war years.
  • The prices doubled between 1913 and 1918.
  • The common people were the worst sufferers because of price rise.
  • Forced recruitment of rural people in the army was another cause of widespread anger among people.
  • Crop failure in many parts of India resulted in acute shortage of food.
  • Influenza epidemic further aggravated the problem.
  • According to 1921 census people died because of famines and
    epidemic.

Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi and Satyagraha

  • Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January, 1915.
  • His heroic fight for the Indians in South Africa was well known.
  • His novel method of mass agitation known as Satyagraha had yielded good results.
  • The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
  • In 1916, Gandhiji traveled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system
  • Mahatma Gandhi advocated a novel method of mass agitation; called Satyagraha.
  • This method was based on the idea that if someone is fighting for a true cause, there is no need to take recourse to physical force to fight the oppressor.
  • Gandhiji believed that a satyagrahi could win a battle through non-violence,  without being aggressive or revengeful.

Some early Satyagraha movements organized by Gandhiji :

  • Peasants’ Movement in Champaran (Bihar) in 1916.
  • Peasants’ Movement in Kheda district (Gujarat) in 1917.
  • Mill workers’ Movement in Ahmedabad in 1918

Notes on Nationalism in India for Class 10th History

The Rowlatt Act (1919) :

  • The Rowlatt Act was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919.
  • The Indian members did not support the Act, but it was passed; nevertheless.
  • The Act gave enormous powers to the government to repress political activities.
  • It allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
  • On 6th April, 1919; Gandhiji launched a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act.
  • The call of strike on 6th April got huge response. People came out in support in various cities, shops were shut down and workers in railway workshops went on strike.
  • The British administration decided to clamp down on the nationalists.
  • Several local leaders were arrested. Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.

Jallianwalla Bagh :

  • On 10th April 1919, in Amritsar the police fired upon a peaceful procession. This provoked widespread attacks on government establishments.
  • Martial law was imposed in Amritsar and the command of the area was given
    to General Dyer.
  • The infamous Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre took place on 13th April, the day on which Baisakhi is celebrated in Punjab
  • A crowd of villagers came to participate in a fair in Jallianwalla Bagh. This was enclosed from all sides with narrow entry points.
  • General Dyer blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd. Hundreds of people were killed in the incident.
  • Public reaction to the incident took a violent turn in many north Indian towns.
  • The government was quite brutal in its response. Things took highly violent turn.
  • Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement as he did not want violence to continue.

Khilafat Movement:

  • The Khilafat issue gave Mahatma Gandhi an opportunity to bring the Hindus and Muslims
    on a common platform.
  • The Ottoman Turkey was badly defeated in the First World War
  • There were rumors about a harsh peace treaty likely to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor, who was the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
  • A Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919 to defend the Khalifa.
  • This committee had leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
  • They also wanted Mahatma Gandhi to take up the cause to build a united mass action.
  • At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, the resolution was passed to launch a Non-Cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and also for swaraj.

Non-Cooperation Movement:

  • In his famous book Hind Swaraj (1909), Mahatma Gandhi declared that British empire  was established in India with the cooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation.
  • Indians refused to cooperate, British rule in India would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come.
  • Gandhiji believed that if Indians begin to refuse to cooperate, the British rulers would have no other way than to leave lndia.
  • Some of the proposals of Non-Cooperation Movement:
  • Surrender the titles which were awarded by the British government.
  • Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils and schools.
  • Boycott of foreign goods.
  • Launch full civil disobedience campaign, if the government persisted with repressive measures.

Differing Strands within the Movement :

  • The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921.
  • Various social groups participated in this movement, each with its own specific aspiration.
  • All of them responded the call of Swaraj, but the term meant different’ things to different people
  • The peasants’ movement in Awadh was led by Baba Ramchandra. He was a sanyasi who had earlier
  • in Fiji as an indentured labourer. The peasants were against the high rents and may other cesses, which demanded by talukdars and landlords.
  • The peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, social boycott of oppressive landlords.
  • Peasants : Tribal peasants gave their own interpretation of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of swaraj.
  • They were prevented from entering the forests to graze cattle, or to collect fruits and firewood.
  • The new forest laws were a threat to their livelihoods. The government forced them to do begar on road construction.
  • Many rebels from the tribal areas became non-violent and often carried guerrilla warfare against the British officials.
  • In the Plantation The plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission
  • As per the Indian Emigration Act of 1859. When the news of Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the plantations, many workers began to defy the authorities.
  • They left plantations and headed towards their homes
  • But they got stranded on the way because of a railway and steamer strike.
  • They were caught by the police brutally beaten up.