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Class 9 Political Science

Preamble Of The Indian Constitution

1. Sovereign
The word ‘sovereign’ implies that India is neither a dependency nor a dominion of any other nation, but an independent state
2. Socialist

Read The Notes on Constitutional Design: Polity Note here 

  • Even before the term was added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, the Constitution had a socialist content in the form of certain Directive Principles of State Policy.
  • Democratic socialism, on the other hand, holds faith in a ‘mixed economy’ where both public and private sectors co-exist side by side.

3. Secular

  • The term ‘secular’ too was added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1976.
  • all religions in our country (irrespective of their strength) have the same status and support from the state

4. Democratic
A democratic  polity, as stipulated in the Preamble, is based on the doctrine of popular sovereignty, that is, possession of supreme power by the people

5. Republic

  • in our Preamble indicates that India has an elected head called the president.
  • He is elected indirectly for a fixed period of five years.

6. Justice

  • The term ‘justice’ in the Preamble embraces three distinct forms—social, economic and political, secured through various provisions of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.

7. Liberty

  • The term ‘liberty’ means the absence of restraints on the activities of individuals, and at the same time, providing opportunities for the development of individual personalities

8. Equality

  • The term ‘equality’ means the absence of special privileges to any section of the society, and the provision of adequate opportunities for all individuals without any discrimination.
  • The Preamble secures to all citizens of India equality of status and opportunity. This provision embraces three dimensions of equality—civic, political and economic.

9. Fraternity

  • Fraternity means a sense of brotherhood.
  • The Constitution promotes this feeling of fraternity by the system of single citizenship.

 

Categories
Class 9 Political Science

Constitutional Design: Polity Note for Class 9th NCERT

Constitution

  • All such certain basic rules that the citizens and the government have to follow together are called constitution.
  • As the supreme law of the country, the constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function.

WHY DO WE NEED A CONSTITUTION?

Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government.

  • it generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together
  •  it specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which
    decisions
  •  It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are
  •  It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

Challenges in making the Indian constitution

  • The size and diversity of India was a huge challenge
  • The issue of partition and religious difference
  • Indian were so called subjects in British time and were to become citizens of India
  • The merger of the princely states as Britishers had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent
  • There were anxieties about the present and the future of the country

Despite all such issues it was not a challenge to decide how the Independent India should look like as

  • Much of this consensus had evolved during the freedom struggle.
  • Our national movement was not merely a struggle against a foreign rule.
  • It was also a struggle to rejuvenate our country and to transform our society and politics

in 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders and In 1931, the resolution at the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how independent India’s constitution should look like.

Both these documents were committed to the inclusion of universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of minorities in the constitution of independent India

The limited franchise based election of the year 1922 and 1937 had provided experience
to Indians in the working of the legislative institutions
This experince proved to be very useful for the country in setting up its own institutions

Features borrowed in Indian Constitution from other countries 

  • We borrowed many features from other democratic countries of that time
  •  Yet they were not simply imitating what others had done.
  • At each step they were questioning whether these things suited our country.

All these factors contributed to the making of our Constitution.

Who framed the Constitution of India

  • The Constitution of India framed by Constitution Constituent Assembly which was established in 1946.
  • Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946.
  • Its first meeting was held in December 1946.
  • Constituent Assembly was to be a partly elected and partly nominated body.
  • Moreover, the members were to be indirectly elected by the members of the provincial assemblies, who themselves were elected on a limited franchise
  • Soon after, the country divided into India and Pakistan.
  • The Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan.
  • The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian constitution had 299 members.
  • The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 but it came into effect on 26 January 1950.
  • To mark this day we celebrate January 26 as Republic Day every year.

Criticism of Constituent Assembly

1. Not a Representative Body: The critics have argued that the Constituent Assembly was not a representative body as its members were not directly elected by the people of India on the basis of universal adult franchise.
2.
Not a Sovereign Body: The critics maintained that the Constituent Assembly was not a
sovereign body as it was created by the proposals of the British Government. Further, they
said that the Assembly held its sessions with the permission of the British Government.
3.
Time Consuming: According to the critics, the Constituent Assembly took unduly long time to make the Constitution. They stated that the framers of the American Constitution took only four months to complete their work.
4.
Dominated by Congress: The critics charged that the Constituent Assembly was dominated by the Congress party. 
5.
Lawyer–Politician Domination: It is also maintained by the critics that the Constituent Assembly was dominated by lawyers and politicians. They pointed out that other sections of the society were not sufficiently represented. This, to them, is the main reason for the bulkiness and complicated language of the Constitution.
6.
Dominated by Hindus: According to some critics, the Constituent Assembly was a Hindu dominated body. 

 Values  embedded in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

  • They guide all the articles of the Indian Constitution.
  • The Constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values.
  • This is called the Preamble to the constitution.
  • Taking inspiration from American model, most countries in the contemporary
    world have chosen to begin their constitutions with a preamble
  • Source of authority of the Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India
  • Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity.
  • Objectives of the Constitution: It specifies justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the objectives.

What is democracy ? Why Democracy Notes on NCERT For Class 9th

Read more about the Preamble here 

Categories
Class 9 Political Science

What is democracy ? Why Democracy Notes on NCERT For Class 9th

  • Democracy –  Democracy has been derived from two Greek word  demos and cratia.
  • Demos means ‘ the people’ and cratia means ‘power’
  • Democracy is a form of government which the administration of the country is run by the representatives who are elected by the people.

Features of democracy

  • Rulers elected by the people take all the major decisions
  • Elections offer a choice and fair opportunity to the people to change the current rulers
  • This choice and opportunity is available to all the people on an equal basis
  • The exercise of this choice leads to a government limited by basic rules of the constitution and citizens’ rights

Direct democracy

  • it is that form of government in which people directly participate in the affairs of the State.
  • in this system the public opinion is expressed directly in assemblies meetings.
  • All the adult citizens have the right to participate in  public meetings of the assembly where all the laws are passed, taxes are assessed etc.
  • This type of system is only possible where the population is small and it is possible for all the citizen to participate directly in the affairs of the state, nowadays this system exists only in a few cantons of Switzerland and some states in USA

indirect democracy

  • indirect democracy are much larger countries.
  • Under this system people elect their representative for a period who run the administration .
  • if they don’t work according to the wishes of the people and for their welfare , they are hanged  till the time of next election
  • People don’t take part directly in the affair of the state.
  • Examples of few democratic countries in the world are India ,USA ,England ,SriLanka.

Dictatorship –

  • it is a form of government in which all the power are concentrated in the hands of a single person or a party of which he is the leader.
  • He is not answerable to any body and nobody can oppose him.
  • Italy and Germany before the second world war had this form of government

Is Democracy suitable to all the Nations

  • Some people has an opinion that democracy is suitable only to those countries
    which are ‘‘industrialized and economically developed
  • They are of the opinion that democracy may not be suitable for countries like India Pakistan etc.
  • They argue that faster and better development is possible only in dictatorship where there is discipline among citizens and no time is wasted in the process of passing a legislature .
  • But this is not true. We have democracies (like India, England and U.S.A.) performing much better for the removal of poverty and backwardness in their respective countries.
  • In India, government has implemented several schemes for the welfare of the people and implemented policies to ensure equal opportunities for all the citizens in the fields of education and employment.
  • On the other hand, under dictatorship, the dictators do not take much interest in the economic development of the country.
  • Only’those in power and supporters of the ruling group enjoy all the benefits and privileges.
  • They amass wealth through illegal and corrupt means.
  • Thus, democracy is suitable for all the nation.

Five merits of democracy

Taking the example of china , when in 1958-61 , many people died because of large famine . The economic condition of India was also not in a good state those days , yet we were able to avoid such large scale famine because we had democracy.

  1. Democracy is based on the principle of equality-
  • All the members or the state are equal in the eyes of law.
  • All enjoy equal social, political and economic benefits and state cannot discriminate among the citizens on the basis of caste,religion,sex,or property

2. Stability and responsibility in administration

  • The tenure of the elected representatives is fixed, They form a stable  government

3. It is more accountable to people

  • A nondemocratic government may and can respond to the people’s needs, but it
    all depends on the wishes of the people who rule.
  • If the rulers don’t want to, they don’t have to act according to the wishes of the people.
  • A democracy requires that the rulers have to attend to the needs of the people

4. Democracy improves the quality of decision-making

  • Democracy is based on consultation and discussion.
  • A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings.
  • Although this takes time but it allows to find out the mistakes .
  • But there is a big advantage in taking time over important decisions.
  • This reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions.

5. Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts

  • people are bound to have differences of opinions and interests.
  • These differences are particularly sharp in a country like ours which has an amazing social diversity.
  • People belong to different regions, speak different languages, practise different religions and have different castes.
  • They look at the world very differently and have different preferences.
  • The preferences of one group can clash with those of other groups.
  • Democracy provides the only peaceful solution to this problem.
  • In democracy, no one is a permanent winner. No one is a permanent loser.
  • Different groups can live with one another peacefully.

6. Democracy allows us to correct its own mistakes.

  •  There is no guarantee that mistakes cannot be made in democracy.
  • No form of government can guarantee that.
  • The advantage in a democracy is that such mistakes cannot be hidden for long.
  • There is a space for public discussion on these mistakes.
  • There is a room for correction.
  • Either the rulers have to change their decisions, or the rulers can be changed.

Arguments against democracy

  • Leaders keep changing in a democracy.
  • This leads to instability.
  • Democracy is all about political competition and power play.
  • There is no scope for morality.
  • So many people have to be consulted in a democracy that it leads to delays.
  • Elected leaders do not know the best interest of the people.
  • It leads to bad decisions.
  • Democracy leads to corruption for it is based on electoral competition.
  • Ordinary people don’t know what is good for them; they should not decide anything.

Challenges to democracy

  • Growing economic and social inequalities among the people
  • Although all the citizens have the right to vote and fight elections rich people have a chance to win the election.
  • The poor are sometimes even forced to sell their votes to fulfill their basic necessities of life like food, clothing and shelter
  • So rich people are elected representatives in the legislature who make laws and frame policies which favour them
  • Role of anti-social elements –
  • The role of anti-social elements has increased very much during the elections.
  • Voters are coerced to vote for a particular candidate or party.
  • Rigging also takes place during the elections.
  •  During elections, a large number of voters give weight to the caste and religion of the candidate-
  • Political parties also keep in mind  the caste or religion of a person while distributing tickets for the election
  • Representatives also work for the favor of people on the basis of caste or religion

Remedies for the removal of drawbacks of democracy.

  1. Efforts should be made to reduce the social and economic inequalities among the
    citizens.
  2.  People should be educated.
  3. Only educated people can realize the importance of the right to vote and other political rights
  4. Use of caste and religion should be banned.
  5. Organisation of political parties on the basis  religion should be checked.
  6. Candidates making use of caste or religion should be disqualified
  7. democratic values should be cultivated in families

Constitutional Design: Polity Note for Class 9th NCERT