Industries can be classified on the following lines
On the basis of source of raw materials used:
- Agro based: cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil
- Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals
According to their main role:
- Basic or key industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.
- Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
On the basis of capital investment:
- Small Scale→ Investment upto 1 Crore
- Large Scale→ more than 1 Crore
- Joint Sector Industries – Example:-Oil India Limited (OIL) => Public + Private
On the basis of ownership:
- Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
- Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
- Joint sector industries which are jointly run by a private and a government agency . ex. Maruti Suzuki
- Textile industries it is second largest industry after agriculture .
- The first mill was set up in Mumbai in 1854.
- The demand of cloth in the united kingdom helped the development of cotton textile industries in India
Why most of the cotton textile industries is located in Maharashtra and Gujarat ?
- The availability of raw cotton, market ,port facilities the moist climate contributed towards its localization.
- India exports yarn to Japan as well as to USA, Russia, France, and other European and African countries.
- in terms of jute Production India stands at number one position while, in terms of export India stands second to Bangladesh.
- The first jute mill setup near Kolkata in 1859.
- The jute industries had a back fall after partition
- After partition the jute mills remained in India while 3/4 of jute production area went to Bangladesh.
Factors responsible for the location of jute industries around the Hoogly basin
- proximity of the jute producing areas, cheap water transport, good network of railways, Roadways and waterways helped in transportation
- Cheap labor from West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, helped in its growth.
- The large urban centre of Kolkata prpvide Banking, Insurance,etc.
- The recent growing global concern for environment led to the Re-opening of jute based products.
- India holds second position in production of sugar, while it occupies the top place in the production of gur, and khandasari.
- As the raw material used is bulky and while transporting the sucrose content reduces therefore, majority of sugar mills are situated close to the cropping areas.
- In recent years there is a shift of sugar mills towards southern and western states because
- the growth of co-operative sector and government support
- The produced cane has a higher sucrose content
- The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season
Challenges to sugar industries.
- Old and in-efficient methods of production
- Seasonal nature of the industries
- Delay in transport leading to loss in sucrose content