Class 10th Geography

Classification of Industries

Industries can be classified on the following lines

On the basis of source of raw materials used:

  •  Agro based: cotton, woolen, jute, silk textile, rubber and sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil
  •  Mineral based: iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals

According to their main role:

Read the First Part on Manufacturing Industry  here

  • Basic or key industries which supply their products or raw materials to manufacture other goods e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminum smelting.
  • Consumer industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers – sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.

On the basis of capital investment:

  1. Small Scale→ Investment upto 1 Crore
  2. Large Scale→ more than 1 Crore
  3. Joint Sector Industries – Example:-Oil India Limited (OIL) => Public + Private

On the basis of ownership:

  1. Public sector, owned and operated by government agencies – BHEL, SAIL etc.
  2.  Private sector industries owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals –TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
  3.  Joint sector industries which are jointly run by a private and a government agency . ex. Maruti Suzuki

Textile Industries 

  • Textile industries it is second largest industry after agriculture .
  • The first mill was set up in Mumbai in 1854.
  • The demand of cloth in the united kingdom helped the development of cotton textile industries in India

Why most of the cotton textile industries is located in Maharashtra and Gujarat ?

  • The availability of raw cotton, market ,port facilities the moist climate contributed towards its localization.
  • India exports yarn to Japan as well as to USA, Russia, France, and other European and African countries.

Jute Textiles

  • in terms of jute Production India stands at number one position while, in terms of export India stands second to Bangladesh.
  • The first jute mill setup near Kolkata in 1859.
  • The jute industries had a back fall after partition
  • After partition the jute mills remained in India while 3/4 of jute production area went to Bangladesh.

Factors responsible for the location of jute industries around the Hoogly basin

  • proximity of the jute producing areas, cheap water transport, good network of railways, Roadways and waterways helped in transportation
  • Cheap labor from West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, helped in its growth.
  • The large urban centre of Kolkata prpvide Banking, Insurance,etc.
  • The recent growing global concern for environment led to the Re-opening of jute based products.

Sugar Industries.

  • India holds second position in production of sugar, while it occupies the top place in the production of gur, and khandasari.
  • As the raw material used is bulky and while transporting the sucrose content reduces therefore, majority of sugar mills are situated close to the cropping areas.
  • In recent years there is a shift of sugar mills towards southern and western states because
  • the growth of co-operative sector and government support
  • The produced cane has a higher sucrose content
  • The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season

Challenges to sugar industries.

  • Old and in-efficient methods of production
  • Seasonal nature of the industries
  • Delay in transport leading to loss in sucrose content


Read The Last part On chemical and Cement industries Here

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