ANIMALIA

Porifera

  • These are non-motile organisms with pores all over their body leading to canal system that helps in circulating water throughout the body to bring in food and oxygen.
  • These animals are covered with a hard outside layer or skeleton
  • They are commonly called sponges example- sycon, spongilla and euplectelia.

Coelenterata

  • The body of these animals have a cavity, and is made up of two layers of cells.
  • Some of these species live in colonies(corals) while others have solitary like span(hydra).

Platyhelminthes

  • The body of these animals are bilaterally symmetrical, and have three layers of cells and are thus called triploblastic.
  • The three layers of cells allow outside and inside body linings as well as some organs to be made.
  • There is no true coelom, in which well developed organs can be accommodated.
  • The body is flattened from top to bottom i.e dorsoventrally.
  • Examples are parasites like liver flukes or free-living animals like planarians.

Nematoda

  • The nematoda body is bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and cylindrical.
  • There are tissues but no organs and have a psuedo cavity
  • Examples of nematoda are worms causing elephantiasis i.e filarial worms and pinworms found in intestines.

Annelida

  • Annelida are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and have a true body cavity, allowing organs to be packed in body structure.
  • Differentiation occurs in a segmental fashion with segments lined up one after the other from head to tail.
  • Earthworms and leeches are examples of annelida.

Arthropoda

  • This is the largest group of animals
  • They are bilaterally symmetrical, segmented, and have an open circulatory system and jointed legs.
  • The coelomic cavity is blood filled in arthropoda.
  • Examples of arthropoda are prawns, butterflies, scorpions and crabs.

Mollusca

  • They are bilaterally symmetrical, have reduced coelomic cavity and little segmentation
  • They have open circulatory system, kidney like organs for excretion and use foot for moving around
  • Example are snails and mussels.

Echinodermata

  • These are spiny skinned, free-living marine animals.
  • They are triploblastic, have a coelomic cavity and have peculiar water driven tube system that they use for moving around
  • They have hard calcium carbonate structures as skeleton.
  • Examples of echinodermata are starfish and sea urchins.

Protochordata

  • They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and have notochord.
  • Notochord is a long rod-like support structure that runs along the back of the animal separating the nervous tissue from the gut.
  • Protochords may not have a proper notochord present at all stages in their lives
  • Examples of protochords are balanoglossus, herdermania and amphioxus.
Balanoglossus
Balanoglossus

Vertebrata

  • These animals have a true vertebral column and internal skeleton, allowing a completely different distribution of muscle attachment points to be used for movement.
  • They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, coelomic, segmented, dorsal nerve chord, paired gill pouches.

(i) Pisces

  • These are fish.
  • Their skin is covered with scales, they obtain oxygen dissolved in water using gills, have a streamlined body and a muscular tail.
  • They are cold-blooded, have two chambered heart and lay eggs
  • Examples are tuna, rohu and angler fish.

(ii)Amphibia

  • They lack scales, have three-chambered heart and mucus glands in their skin .
  • They respire through gills or lungs and lay eggs.
  • Examples of amphibia are salamanders and hyla.

(iii)Reptilia

  • These animals are cold-blooded, have scales, lay eggs, have three chambered heart and respire through lungs
  • Crocodiles have four-chambered heart.
  • Turtles, lizard and chameleon are examples of reptiles.
Nile crocodile

(iv)Aves

  • They are warm-blooded, have four chambered heart, lay eggs and have an outside covering of feathers.
  • They have two forelimbs modified for flight and breathe through lungs
  • Examples are ostrich, crow, sparrow etc.

(v)Mammalia

  • Mammals are warm-blooded, have mammary glands for production of milk to nourish young ones.
  • Their skin have hair as well as sweat and oil glands
  • Platypus and echidna lay eggs.
  • Examples of mammals are human, whale, bat etc.

Diversity in Living Organisms NCERT Solutions

Diversity in Living Organisms:NCERT Notes Class 9th

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