Lifelines of National Economy
- Goods and services are transported using three modes of transport.
- According to the medium , transport can be classified into land water and air transport.
Means of Transport
Inland and Overseas
- India has one of the largest road networks in the world,of about 2.3 million km in length
- They still have an edge over railways in view of the ease with which they can be built and maintained.
Reasons for Growing Importance of Road as compared to railways
- Construction cost of Road is Much lower
- Roads can traverse – dissected, undulating topography
- it is Economical and even suitable for Few persons, smaller goods for short distance
- it can be used for Door – to – door service and has Lower cost of loading & unloading.
- it acts as Feeder service to other modes .
Classification of Roads
In India, roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity.
- Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
- National Highways
- State Highways
- District Roads
- Other Roads
- Border Roads
Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
- It is a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways.
- The North-South corridors link Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu)
- East-West Corridor connect Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat)
- The project is implemented by National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).
2. National Highways
- National Highways link extreme parts of the country.
- These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
- A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East-West directions.
National Highway New Numbering System
- on 28 April 2010 the highway numbering system introduced .
- As per the new numbering system, All major Highways will be single digit or double digit and also based on the orientation and the geographic location of the highway.
- NH 44 – 3,745 km (Old NH 7) – It is the longest National Highway in India, starts from Srinagar and terminates in Kanyakumari.
- Major stretch of NH 44 are part of North South Corridor and the Golden Quadrilateral,connects several important Indian cities from Srinagar to Kanyakumari.
- National Highway 16 (NH 16) is a major National Highway in India, that runs along east coast of West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It was previously known as National Highway 5.
- NH 19 – 1,435 km (Old NH 2) is 1,435 km long highway is one of the busiest National Highways in India
- it runs through the major cities of Delhi, Agra, Varanasi, Barhi,Asansol and Kolkata.
- It was part of the Golden Quadrilateral and a major portion is the historical Grand Trunk Road
- Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways.
- These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories.
- These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district.
- These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.
- Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category.
- These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
- Border Roads Organisation a Government of India undertaking constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country.
- This organisation was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and northeastern border areas.
- The length of road per 100 sq. km of area is known as density of roads.