Lifelines of National Economy

  • Goods and services are transported using three modes of transport.
  • According to the medium , transport can be classified into land water and air transport.

Means of Transport

  1. Land
    Roadways
    Railways
    Pipelines

2. Water

Inland and Overseas

3. Air
Domestic Airways
International

Roadways

  • India has one of the largest road networks in the world,of about 2.3 million km in length
  • They still have an edge over railways in view of the ease with which they can be built and maintained.

Reasons for Growing Importance of Road as compared to railways

  • Construction cost of Road is Much lower
  •  Roads can traverse – dissected, undulating topography
  • it is Economical and even suitable for Few persons, smaller goods for short distance
  •  it can be used for Door – to – door service and has Lower cost of loading & unloading.
  • it acts as Feeder service to other modes .

Classification of Roads

In India, roads are classified in the following six classes according to their capacity.

  1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways
  2. National Highways
  3. State Highways
  4. District Roads
  5. Other Roads
  6. Border Roads
  1. Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways

  • It is a major road development project linking Delhi-Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six-lane Super Highways.
  • The North-South corridors link Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu)
  • East-West Corridor connect Silcher (Assam) and Porbander (Gujarat)
  • The project is implemented by National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

2. National Highways

  • National Highways link extreme parts of the country.
  • These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD).
  • A number of major National Highways run in North-South and East-West directions.

National Highway New Numbering System 

  • on 28 April 2010 the highway numbering system introduced .
  • As per the new numbering system, All major Highways will be single digit or double digit and also based on the orientation and the geographic location of the highway.
  • NH 44 – 3,745 km (Old NH 7) – It is the longest National Highway in India, starts from Srinagar and terminates in Kanyakumari.
  • Major stretch of NH 44 are part of North South Corridor and the Golden Quadrilateral,connects several important Indian cities from Srinagar to Kanyakumari.
  • National Highway 16 (NH 16) is a major National Highway in India, that runs along east coast of West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.[1] It was previously known as National Highway 5.
  • NH 19 – 1,435 km (Old NH 2) is  1,435 km long highway is one of the busiest National Highways in India
  • it runs through the major cities of Delhi, Agra, Varanasi, Barhi,Asansol and Kolkata.
  • It was part of the Golden Quadrilateral and a major portion is the historical Grand Trunk Road

State Highways

  • Roads linking a state capital with different district headquarters are known as State Highways.
  • These roads are constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD) in State and Union Territories.

District Roads:

  • These roads connect the district headquarters with other places of the district.
  • These roads are maintained by the Zila Parishad.

Other Roads:

  • Rural roads, which link rural areas and villages with towns, are classified under this category.
  • These roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.

Border Roads:

  • Border Roads Organisation a Government of India undertaking constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country.
  • This organisation was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and northeastern border areas.

Road Density

  • The length of road per 100 sq. km of area is known as density of roads.

Read The Second Part Of the Topic on Railways and Waterways Here 

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