Mineral based Industries

Iron and Steel Industry

  • As all other industries heavy,medium and light depend on the iron and still industry it is also called basic industry
  • Production and consumption of steel is often taken as the index of a country’s development.
  • for the production of steel Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1

  • China is the largest producer of steel. China is also the world’s largest consumer of steel.

Read the Second  Part  on Classification of Industries Here

Why Chotanagpur region is suitable for Iron and Steel industries ?

  • Chotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.
  • It is largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry.
  • Low cost of iron ore, high grade raw materials in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market has helped in its concentration .


  • High costs & limited availability of coking coal
  • Low : Labour productivity
  • Poor infrastructure
  • Irregular supply of energy

Aluminium Smelting

  • 2nd most important metallurgical industry in India.
  • It is light, resistant to corrosion, good conductor, mallable, becomes strong when mixed with other metals
  • It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires
  • Aluminium smelting plants in the country are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Bauxite, the raw material used in the smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock.

Factors Affecting location of aluminium smelting industry

  • Regular supply of electricity
  • Assured source of raw material at minimum cost

Chemical Industries

  •  It is 3rd largest in Asia & 12th World in Size.
  • Inorganic Chemicals
    – Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, Soda Ash → Soap, detergents, glass, paper etc.
    – Widely spread over country
  • Organic Chemicals
    – Petrochemicals
    – Located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants

Fertilizer Industry 

  • The fertilizer industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers (mainly urea), phosphate fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP)
  • complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K)
  • The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.

Cement Industry

  • This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.
  • The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.
  •  The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
  • After Independence the industry expanded.
  • Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides.

Automobile Industry

  •  This industry had experienced a quantum jump in less than 15 years.
  • Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.

Information Technology and Electronics Industry

  •  Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
  • Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
  • It is encouraging to know that 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women
  • This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner for India

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

  • Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
  • Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust,
    sprays mist and smoke
  •  Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluent discharged into rivers.
  • Fly ash, phospo- gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.
  • Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
  • Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. Soil and water pollution are closely related.