Mineral based Industries
Iron and Steel Industry
- As all other industries heavy,medium and light depend on the iron and still industry it is also called basic industry
- Production and consumption of steel is often taken as the index of a country’s development.
- for the production of steel Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in the ratio of approximately 4 : 2 : 1
- China is the largest producer of steel. China is also the world’s largest consumer of steel.
Why Chotanagpur region is suitable for Iron and Steel industries ?
- Chotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.
- It is largely, because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry.
- Low cost of iron ore, high grade raw materials in proximity, cheap labour and vast growth potential in the home market has helped in its concentration .
- High costs & limited availability of coking coal
- Low : Labour productivity
- Poor infrastructure
- Irregular supply of energy
- 2nd most important metallurgical industry in India.
- It is light, resistant to corrosion, good conductor, mallable, becomes strong when mixed with other metals
- It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires
- Aluminium smelting plants in the country are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
- Bauxite, the raw material used in the smelters is a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock.
Factors Affecting location of aluminium smelting industry
- Regular supply of electricity
- Assured source of raw material at minimum cost
- It is 3rd largest in Asia & 12th World in Size.
- Inorganic Chemicals
– Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, Soda Ash → Soap, detergents, glass, paper etc.
– Widely spread over country
- Organic Chemicals
– Located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants
- The fertilizer industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers (mainly urea), phosphate fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP)
- complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K)
- The third, i.e. potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form.
- This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation.
- The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.
- The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
- After Independence the industry expanded.
- Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides.
- This industry had experienced a quantum jump in less than 15 years.
- Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.
Information Technology and Electronics Industry
- Bangalore has emerged as the electronic capital of India.
- Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.
- It is encouraging to know that 30 per cent of the people employed in this sector are women
- This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner for India
Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation
- Air pollution is caused by the presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
- Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust,
sprays mist and smoke
- Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluent discharged into rivers.
- Fly ash, phospo- gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.
- Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into rivers and ponds before cooling.
- Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. Soil and water pollution are closely related.