Conservation of Minerals

  • We are dependent on minerals for the development
  • We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that required millions of years to be created and concentrated.
  • Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with decrease in quality
  • Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving our mineral resources for the future

Mineral and Energy resources part 1

Energy Resources

  • we need Energy is required for all activities.
  • It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries.
  • Energy resources can be classified as conventional and nonconventional sources.

Difference between conventional and nonconventional sources.

Usage Period Have been used since the early times have been come into use


Availability limited amount, cannot depend for future . In abundance for future use.
Nature Exhaustible in nature lasts for few years Inexhaustible in nature going to last forever if judiciously used.
Renewability Once used they cannot be renewed Renewed in short period
Response to environment causes air,water and land pollution as they leave smoke and residue They are eco friendly as do not cause pollution and leave residue
Cost require huge capital investment Comparatively cheaper.
Example Coal,petroleum etc Solar,wind,etc


  • Coal is an inflammable organic substance composed of carbons found in sedimentary rocks.
  • Formation-  Carbon is formed due to compression of plant material under heat and pressure over million of years.
  • Variety of forms depending on
  • a. Degree of compression b. Depth c. Time of Burial

Different types of coals and their properties

  • In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana
  • over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old.


  • Petroleum or mineral oil is next energy after coal.
  • Crude oil. Coal cant be used for road vehicle and transportation
  • Uses- fuel for heat and lighting
  • Generation of electricity
  • Lubricants for machinery
  • Raw material for manufacturing industries.
  • Used in vehicles
  • “ Nodal Industry’ for synthetic textiles,fertilisers
  • Petroleum formed due to compression of animals or human beings over
  • Million years under great heat and pressure.(Fat turned into oil).

Ex- On-shore (Animals/Human Beings) and Off-Shore(Marine creatures)

Petroleum Location

  • About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent
  • from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam.
  • Ankeleshwar is the most important field of Gujarat. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Digboi,
  • Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields in the state

Natural Gas

  • Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or without petroleum.
  • It is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry


  1. Krishna- Godavari basin.
  2. Mumbai High- West Coast.
  3. Gulf of Cambay(Gujarat)
  4. Andaman and Nicobar


  • Electricity has such a wide range of applications in today’s world that, its per capita consumption is considered as an index of development thermal and hydro difference.png

Non-Conventional Source of Energy

  • They are renewable in nature and recently been in use thus called Non conventional sources

Reason to Switch towards renewable source of energy –

  1. Rising prices of oil.
  2. Increasing cost of extraction.
  3. Potential shortage.
  4. Environmental problems due to fossil fuels.
Energy Resources Process of


Uses/Sources/Benefits Plants Located/Plants located
Atomic Energy It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms,when such an altn is made,much energy is released in the form of heat. Used to generate Electric power Uranium and Thorium(Jh,Aravli

range in Rajasthan and Monazite sandsof kerala rich in thorium)

Places- 1.Narora- Bulandshahr

2.Rawat Bhata- Kota,Rajasthan

3.Tarapur- Maharashtra




Solar Energy(Tropica Country) Photovoltaic Tech.(Silicon and Germanium) taps solar energy and converts directly into electricity Fast being popular in rural and remote areas and inaccessible area.

-Used to sterlise milk cans,cooking,heat ing water.

-Able to minimise the dependence of firewood and dung cakes

-Leads to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.

Madhupur ,Gujarat
Energy Resources Process of




Plants Located/Plants located
Wind Power The wind rotates the shaft of windmill which drives the turbine converts the kinetic energy to electrical energy. Eco-friendly and do not cause pollution.

Limitation- Can be set up only in obstacle free or coastal areas.

Largest windfarm cluster in TN from nagercoil to Madurai,A.P,Karnat aka,Gujarat,Jaisalm er and Lakshadweep.



  • Formed by Decomposition of organic matter like shrubs,farmwaste, animal and human waste in absence of Oxygen produce biogas.
  • It improves the quality of manure and also prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuel wood and cow dung cakes

Tidal Energy

  • In India the Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat on the western coast and Gangetic delta in Sunderban regions of West Bengal provide ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy
  • Floodgate dams are built across inlets.During high tide water flows into the inlet and gets trapped which moves the fan inside.
  • After tide falls the water retained by the floodgates flows back to sea via pipe that carries it through a power generating turbines

Benefits of Tidal Energy

Used to produce

  • Electricity and ecfriendly due to no pollution.
  • Renewable- can be used again and again.
  • 900 mw plant set by the Nat. Hydropower Corp.


  • Set up only on coast.
  • Can generate electricity during high tides only

Conservation of Energy Resources


• Sustainable path- promotion of energy conservation , increase use of renewable sources.


  • Judicious use of resources
  • Use of Public transport system
  • Switching off electricity when not in use.
  • Using power saving device
  • Using non-conventional sources.Conservation of Energy Resources
  • Sustainable path- promotion of energy conservation , increase use of renewable sources.

Mineral and Energy resources part 1