Class 9 Geography

Montane and Mangrove Forest Notes on NCERT Geography

Montane Forests

  • In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation.
  • As such, there is a succession of natural vegetation belts in the same order as we see from the tropical to the tundra region

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Wet Temperate Type of Forest

  • Found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres.
  • Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate.
शाहबलूत     shaahabaloot(Chestnut)

Temperate Forests Containing Coniferous Trees

  • Found between 1500 and 3000 metres
  • Trees:
    1. Pine
    2. Deodar
    3. Silver fir
    4. Spruce
    5. Cedar
    These Forests Cover:
    1. Southern slopes of Himalaya
    2. Places having high altitude in Southern & North – East India

Indian Deserts and Island Groups

Alpine Vegetation
• Height: At high altitudes, more than 3600m above Mean Sea Level.
• Temperate grasslands & forests give way to alpine vegetation.
• Trees:
1. Silver fir
2. Junipers
3. Pines
4. Birches
• Trees get Stunted progressively as they approach snow line.
• Ultimately, through Shrubs & Scrubs, they merge into Alpine Grasslands

Tundra Vegetation
• At higher altitudes, Mosses & Lichens form part of tundra.
1. Kashmir Stag (Hangul)→ State animal of Jammu & Kashmir(Critically endangered)
2. Spotted Dear (Chital)→ Jinke in Kannada
3. Wild Sheep
4. Jack Rabbit
5. Tibetan Antelope (Chiru) – Ladakh, India

Mangrove Forests

• Mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides.
• Mud & Silt get accumulated on such coasts.
• Roots: submerged under water.

India : Size and Location Geography Notes


  • The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishana, the Godavari and the Kaveri are covered by such vegetation.
  • In the Ganga- Brahamaputra delta, sundari trees are found, which provide durable
    hard timber.
  • Palm, coconut, keora, agar, also grow in some parts of the delta.
  • Royal Bengal Tiger is the famous animal in these forests.
  • Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests

Population Composition :Geography Notes on NCERT

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