Class 9 Geography

Natural Vegetation And Wild Life


  • India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world.
  • In plant diversity India ranks 10th in World, 4th in Asia.
  • India has 47,000 plant species India of which 15000 species are flowering plants
  • India also has approximately 90,000 species of animals as well as a rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters
  • Flora – plants of a particular region or period.
  • fauna – the species of animals are referred to as Fauna .

Natural Vegetation refers to a Plant Community which has grown naturally without human aid & has been left undisturbed by humans for long time.

This is termed as a “Virgin Vegetation”

A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life is called a biome. The biomes are identified on the basis of plants.

Factors Responsible for Flora & Fauna Diversity:

  1. Relief  – Land and Soil
    Examples:-Sandy soil→ Cactus  Marshy soil→ Mangroves
    Hill slopes with some depth of soil→Conical Trees
  2. Climate
  3. Temperature
  4. Photo-period (Sunlight)
  5. Precipitation
    →Biomes are identified on the basis of plants.

Types of Vegetation in India

1. Tropical evergreen forests
2. Tropical deciduous forests
3. Tropical thorn forests & shrubs
4. Montane forests
5. Mangrove forests

  1. Tropical Evergreen Forests

  • Rainfall
  • Heavy rainfall areas
  • More than 200 cm with short dry season
  • There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves. As such, these forests appear green all the year round


  • Western Ghats (Western slopes)
  • Island of Andaman & Nicobar, Lakshadweep
  • Upper parts of Assam & Tamil Nadu coast.

Vegetation → Warm & wet => throughout year.Mahogany

  1. Ebony
  2. Rosewood
  3. Rubber
  4. Cinchona
Rose Wood
Cinchona- Used for treating Malaria


  • Elephants, Monkey, Lemur & Deer
  • One horned Rhinoceros →Assam and West Bengal
  • Birds, bats, sloth (mammal), scorpions, snails

Read Here on Indian Deserts and Island Groups

Tropical Deciduous Forests

  •  Most Widespread forest of India. also called Monsoon forests
  • Rainfall : Between 200cm & 70ocm
  • Trees shed leaves for 6 to 8 weeks in dry summer.

On the basis of availability of water, they can be classified into two types

  1. Moist deciduous
  2. Dry deciduous
  • Common Animals: Lion, tiger, pig, deer, elephant.
  • Birds, lizards, snakes, tortoises

Tropical Moist Deciduous

  • Rainfall: 200cm – 100cm
  • Areas: Mostly in eastern parts of Country
  1. North – East states
  2. Foothills of Himalayas
  3. Jharkhand
  4. West Chhattisgarh
  5. Eastern slopes of Western Ghats.

Indian Climate and Monsoon Geography Notes


  1. Teak→ Most dominant species
  2. Bamboos
  3. Sal
  4. Shisham
  5. Sandalwood
  6. Khair
  7. Kusum
  8. Arjun
  9. Mulberry
Kusum Tree

Tropical Dry Deciduous

  • Rainfall: 100cm – 70cm
  • Areas:
  1. Rainier parts of Peninsular Plateau
  2. Plains of Bihar
  3. Plains of Uttar Pradesh
  • Vegetation:
  1. Teak
  2. Sal
  3. Peepal
  4. Neem
  • Large part of this forest are  cleared for cultivation & grazing.

The Thorn Forests & Scrubs

  • Rainfall: Less than 70cm
  • Areas:  North – West part + semi – arid areas of:
  1. Rajasthan
  2. Madhya Pradesh
  3. Gujarat
  4. Chhattisgarh
  5. Haryana
  • Vegetation
  1. Acacia
  2. Palms
  3. Euphorbia’s
  4. Cacti

  • Trees are found scattered and have  long roots to get moisture from deep ground
  • Stems are Succulent so that they can conserve moisture
  • Leaves : Thick & Small→ minimize evaporation
  • Animals: Rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horse, camels

Montane Forests

  • In Mountainous areas, the decrease in temp with increasing altitude leads to corresponding change in natural vegetation.
  • There is succession of natural vegetation in the same order as from Tropical to Tundra Region.
  1. Wet Temperate Type of Forests
  2. Temperate Forests Containing Coniferous Trees
  3. Temperate Grasslands
  4. Alpine Vegetation
  5. Tundra Vegetation

Visit Here For the Second Part Of the topic

Montane and Mangrove Forest Notes on NCERT Geography

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