NATURAL VEGETATION & WILD LIFE
- India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world.
- In plant diversity India ranks 10th in World, 4th in Asia.
- India has 47,000 plant species India of which 15000 species are flowering plants
- India also has approximately 90,000 species of animals as well as a rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters
- Flora – plants of a particular region or period.
- fauna – the species of animals are referred to as Fauna .
Natural Vegetation refers to a Plant Community which has grown naturally without human aid & has been left undisturbed by humans for long time.
This is termed as a “Virgin Vegetation”
A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life is called a biome. The biomes are identified on the basis of plants.
Factors Responsible for Flora & Fauna Diversity:
- Relief – Land and Soil
Examples:-Sandy soil→ Cactus Marshy soil→ Mangroves
Hill slopes with some depth of soil→Conical Trees
- Photo-period (Sunlight)
→Biomes are identified on the basis of plants.
Types of Vegetation in India
1. Tropical evergreen forests
2. Tropical deciduous forests
3. Tropical thorn forests & shrubs
4. Montane forests
5. Mangrove forests
Tropical Evergreen Forests
- Heavy rainfall areas
- More than 200 cm with short dry season
- There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves. As such, these forests appear green all the year round
- Western Ghats (Western slopes)
- Island of Andaman & Nicobar, Lakshadweep
- Upper parts of Assam & Tamil Nadu coast.
Vegetation → Warm & wet => throughout year.Mahogany
- Elephants, Monkey, Lemur & Deer
- One horned Rhinoceros →Assam and West Bengal
- Birds, bats, sloth (mammal), scorpions, snails
Tropical Deciduous Forests
- Most Widespread forest of India. also called Monsoon forests
- Rainfall : Between 200cm & 70ocm
- Trees shed leaves for 6 to 8 weeks in dry summer.
On the basis of availability of water, they can be classified into two types
- Moist deciduous
- Dry deciduous
- Common Animals: Lion, tiger, pig, deer, elephant.
- Birds, lizards, snakes, tortoises
Tropical Moist Deciduous
- Rainfall: 200cm – 100cm
- Areas: Mostly in eastern parts of Country
- North – East states
- Foothills of Himalayas
- West Chhattisgarh
- Eastern slopes of Western Ghats.
- Teak→ Most dominant species
Tropical Dry Deciduous
- Rainfall: 100cm – 70cm
- Rainier parts of Peninsular Plateau
- Plains of Bihar
- Plains of Uttar Pradesh
- Large part of this forest are cleared for cultivation & grazing.
The Thorn Forests & Scrubs
- Rainfall: Less than 70cm
- Areas: North – West part + semi – arid areas of:
- Madhya Pradesh
- Trees are found scattered and have long roots to get moisture from deep ground
- Stems are Succulent so that they can conserve moisture
- Leaves : Thick & Small→ minimize evaporation
- Animals: Rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horse, camels
- In Mountainous areas, the decrease in temp with increasing altitude leads to corresponding change in natural vegetation.
- There is succession of natural vegetation in the same order as from Tropical to Tundra Region.
- Wet Temperate Type of Forests
- Temperate Forests Containing Coniferous Trees
- Temperate Grasslands
- Alpine Vegetation
- Tundra Vegetation