Class 9 Geography

Population Composition and Literacy Rates in India

Sex Ratio – In India sex ratio is the number of females per thousand males

  • In regions where gender discrimination is rampant, the sex ratio is generally poor .
  • The low number of males in the populations of many European countries show better status of women, and an excessively male-dominated out-migration to different parts of the world in the past.

Read the First Part Here  Population Composition :Geography Notes on NCERT

Sex Ratio (Females/ 1000 Males)

Age Structure

  • Age structure shows the number of people of different age groups.
  • Dependent Population are 1. Children who are  Below 15 years and 2. Aged who are Above 59 years
  • Persons of age 15 – 59 years comes under Working age

Dependency Ratio – It is the ratio of People of dependent age to the Working age

Age-Sex Pyramid

Age Sex Pyramid
  • The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of females and males in different age groups.
  •  The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population.
  • The left side shows the percentage of males while the right side shows the percentage of female in each age group.
  • Expanding Populations: The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide base and usually found in less developed countries.
  • These have larger populations in lower age groups due to high birth rates.
  •  Constant population: Morocco’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and tapered towards the top.
  • This shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near constant population.
  • Declining Populations: A narrow base and a tapered top showing low birth
    and death rates. The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative.

State wise population composition of India 


Literacy Rate

A person aged 7 years & above who can read & write with understanding in any language is a literate .

National Population Policy (NPP) →2000

  •  Free & compulsory school education upto 14 years
  • Reducing IMR to below 30 per 1000 live births
  • Universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases
  •  Promoting delayed marriage for girls
  • Making family welfare a people – Centered Program.

NPP 2000 & Adolescents

  • It identified adolescents as one of major sections of population that need greater attention.
  •  Nutritional requirements
  • Protection from unwanted pregnancies & sexually transmitted diseases
  • Encouraging delayed marriage & child bearing
  •  Awareness about risk of unprotected sex
  • Making contraceptives accessible & affordable
  • Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage



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