Sex Ratio – In India sex ratio is the number of females per thousand males
- In regions where gender discrimination is rampant, the sex ratio is generally poor .
- The low number of males in the populations of many European countries show better status of women, and an excessively male-dominated out-migration to different parts of the world in the past.
- Age structure shows the number of people of different age groups.
- Dependent Population are 1. Children who are Below 15 years and 2. Aged who are Above 59 years
- Persons of age 15 – 59 years comes under Working age
Dependency Ratio – It is the ratio of People of dependent age to the Working age
- The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of females and males in different age groups.
- The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population.
- The left side shows the percentage of males while the right side shows the percentage of female in each age group.
- Expanding Populations: The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide base and usually found in less developed countries.
- These have larger populations in lower age groups due to high birth rates.
- Constant population: Morocco’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and tapered towards the top.
- This shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near constant population.
- Declining Populations: A narrow base and a tapered top showing low birth
and death rates. The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative.
State wise population composition of India
A person aged 7 years & above who can read & write with understanding in any language is a literate .
National Population Policy (NPP) →2000
- Free & compulsory school education upto 14 years
- Reducing IMR to below 30 per 1000 live births
- Universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases
- Promoting delayed marriage for girls
- Making family welfare a people – Centered Program.
NPP 2000 & Adolescents
- It identified adolescents as one of major sections of population that need greater attention.
- Nutritional requirements
- Protection from unwanted pregnancies & sexually transmitted diseases
- Encouraging delayed marriage & child bearing
- Awareness about risk of unprotected sex
- Making contraceptives accessible & affordable
- Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage