1. Sovereign
The word ‘sovereign’ implies that India is neither a dependency nor a dominion of any other nation, but an independent state
2. Socialist

Read The Notes on Constitutional Design: Polity Note here 

  • Even before the term was added by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, the Constitution had a socialist content in the form of certain Directive Principles of State Policy.
  • Democratic socialism, on the other hand, holds faith in a ‘mixed economy’ where both public and private sectors co-exist side by side.

3. Secular

  • The term ‘secular’ too was added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1976.
  • all religions in our country (irrespective of their strength) have the same status and support from the state

4. Democratic
A democratic  polity, as stipulated in the Preamble, is based on the doctrine of popular sovereignty, that is, possession of supreme power by the people

5. Republic

  • in our Preamble indicates that India has an elected head called the president.
  • He is elected indirectly for a fixed period of five years.

6. Justice

  • The term ‘justice’ in the Preamble embraces three distinct forms—social, economic and political, secured through various provisions of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.

7. Liberty

  • The term ‘liberty’ means the absence of restraints on the activities of individuals, and at the same time, providing opportunities for the development of individual personalities

8. Equality

  • The term ‘equality’ means the absence of special privileges to any section of the society, and the provision of adequate opportunities for all individuals without any discrimination.
  • The Preamble secures to all citizens of India equality of status and opportunity. This provision embraces three dimensions of equality—civic, political and economic.

9. Fraternity

  • Fraternity means a sense of brotherhood.
  • The Constitution promotes this feeling of fraternity by the system of single citizenship.