Resource and Development

  • A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced
  • Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it’s technologically accessible(may be in future , if not presently) , economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.


1. On the basis of origin :
(i) Biotic (ii) Abiotic

2. On the basis of exhaustibility :
(i) Renewable (ii) Non Renewable

3. On the basis of ownership :
(i) Individual    (ii) Community     (iii) National     (iv) International
4. On the basis of status of development :
(i) Potential      (iii) Stock

1. On the basis of origin :

Biotic Resourses

  • These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna,
    fisheries, livestock, etc

Abiotic resources: Resources that comprise of non-living things, such as rocks, minerals, etc.

2. On the basis of exhaustibly :

Renewable resources-

  • These are those which get renewed or replenished quickly.
  • Some of these are unlimited and are not affected by human activities.
  • Example solar and wind energy.
  • Yet careless use of certain renewable resources like water, soil and forest can affect their stock.
  • Shortage and drying up of natural water sources is a major problem in many parts of the world today.

2. Non-renewable-

  • Non-renewable resources are those which have a limited stock.
  • Once the stocks are exhausted it may take thousands of years to be renewed or replenished.
  • Example: Coal, petroleum and natural gas are some examples

On The Basis of Development

Actual resources-

  • Actual resources are those resources whose quantity is known.
  • These resources are being used in the present.
  • The rich deposits of coal in Ruhr region of Germany and petroleum in the West Asia, the dark soils of the Deccan plateau in Maharashtra are all actual resources.

Potential resources-

  • Potential resources are those whose entire quantity may not be known and these are not being used at present.
  • These resources could be used in the future.
  • The uranium found in Ladakh is an example of potential resource that could be used in the future.
  • High speed winds were a potential resource two hundred years ago. Today they are an actual resource and wind farms generate energy using windmills like in Netherlands.

On the basis of their distribution

  • Ubiquitous- Resources that are found everywhere like the air we breathe, are ubiquitous.
  • Localized-Resources those which are found only in certain places are localised, like copper and iron ore.

On The Basis of ownership

  • Individual resources : The resources owned privately by individuals.
  • Community-owned resources : Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community.
  • National resources : All the resources, which are present in the political boundary of a nation up to 12 nautical in the ocean from the coast.
  • International resources: The resources that do not belong to any individual country.


  • Many resources got depleted. Ex: Forest
  • Resources got accumulated in the hands of few people.
  • The society is divided into rich and poor.
  • Global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental degradation are other problems.

Sustainable development : It means development should take place without damaging the environment and Development in the present should not compromise with needs of the future generations.

Some Principles of Sustainable Development

  • Respect and care for all forms of life
  • Improve the quality of human life
  • Conserve the earth’s vitality and diversity
  • Minimise the depletion of natural resources
  • Change personal attitude and practices toward the environment
  • Enable communities to care for their own environment.

Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels.

Previously Asked questions in the Board Exam From this Topic

1. Give one difference between renewable and non- renewable resources.

2.What is Agenda 21? List its two principles.

3. What is meant by the term “resource”? List the types of resources classified on the basis of its ownership.

4. Distinguish between stock and potential resources , Give one example of each.

5.”In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources”. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three examples

Answer- Yes, there are regions which are rich in certain types of resources, but are deficient in some other resources.

  • Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
  • Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources, but lacks in infrastructural development.
  • Rajasthan is endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
  • Ladakh has rich cultural heritage but lacks in water resources and infrastructure.

6. What are the three stages of resource planning in India

  • Ans. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country .
  • Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional
    set up for implementing resource development plans.
  • Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

find the NCERT Solution of this chapter here .

Free Test for Social Science Class 10th NCERT