Edusaint

Chemicals From Chemical Salt and Uses

SALTS

  • A salt is a compound formed from an acid by the replacement of the hydrogen in the acid by a metal.
  • The salts of ‘hydrochloric acid’ are called ‘chlorides’.
  •  The salts of ‘sulphuric acid’ are called ‘sulphates’.
  •  The salts of ‘nitric acid’ are called ‘nitrates’.
  •  The salts of ‘carbonic acid’ are called ‘carbonates’.
  •  The salts of ‘acetic acid’ are called ‘acetates’, and so on.
  • WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION :it refers to water molecules that are found  in the crystalline structure of a metal complex or a salt,  which is not directly bonded to the metal cation.
  • HYDRATED SALTS -When crystalized salts contain water molecules as part of their structure, they’re known as hydrated salts.
  • EXAMPLES –
  • washing soda (sodium carbonate decahydrate, Na2CO3∙10H2O)
  • Glauber’s salt (Na2SO4∙10H2O)
  • borax (Na2B4O7∙10H2O)
  • Epsom salt (MgSO4∙7H2O)

COMMON SALT (SODIUM CHLORIDE)

  • The common salt is a white powder which is used in preparing food, especially vegetables and pulses, etc
  • Common salt is also known as just ‘salt’. The chemical name of common salt is sodium chloride (NaCl).
  • Common salt (or sodium chloride) is a neutral salt.
  • Sodium chloride can be made in the laboratory by the combination of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid :
Process of formation of salt ( sodium chloride ) by reaction of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloride acid
Process of formation of salt ( sodium chloride ) by reaction of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloride acid
  • How common salt is obtained ?
  • Common salt occurs in dissolved form in sea-water.
  • On the other hand, common salt occurs in solid form as rock salt.

Uses of Common Salt

  • it is an important raw material for various materials we use daily like
  • sodium hydroxide, baking soda, washing soda, bleaching powder and many more.
  • it is use in food.
  • Used as a preservative in pickles and in curing meat and fish.
  • Used in the manufacture of soap
sodium chloride or common salt

SODIUM HYDROXIDE

  • Sodium hydroxide is commonly known as caustic soda.
  • The chemical formula of sodium hydroxide is NaOH.
chemical reaction for formation of caustic soda by sodium chloride solution (brine) and water.
chemical reaction for formation of caustic soda by sodium chloride solution (brine) and water.
  • The process of electrolysis of sodium chloride solution is called chlor-alkali process
  • chlor-alkali process– The chloralkali process is an industrial  process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions.
  • It is the technology used to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide.
  • The three very useful products obtained by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution called brine (or chlor-alkali process) are sodium hydroxide, chlorine and hydrogen.
chlor- alkali process
chlor- alkali process

 

Uses of Chlorine-

  • it act as disinfectant to kill bacteria.
  • It is used to treat drinking water and swimming pool water.
  • it is used to produce paper, paints,textiles, insecticides and many more.
  • 20% of chlorine produced is used to make PVC.
  • It is used as an oxidising agent.
  • Chlorine gas is itself very poisonous, and was used as a chemical weapon during the First World War.
different use of chlorine in our daily life
different use of chlorine in our daily life

Uses of HCL

  • it help to digest your food in stomach.
  • it is used in industry to make steel which is used to make
  • suspension bridges and cars and trucks.
  • it is used in the production of batteries, photoflash bulbs and fireworks.
  • it is used to process sugar and make gelatin.
formation of hydrochloric acid in our stomach which help in food digestion
formation of hydrochloric acid in our stomach which help in food digestion

Uses Of Hydrogen

  • use of hydrogen is to remove the sulfur that is naturally contained in oil to produce cleaner fuels.
  • it is used as a reagent in many industrial sectors like chemicals,
  • textile fiber manufacturing, glass, electronics and metallurgy.
  • it is also used as fuel for rocket launchers.
  • Hydrogen is used to produce clean and silent energy.
  • Hydrogen used in a fuel cell allows us to produce electricity directly
use of hydrogen as rocket fuel
use of hydrogen as rocket fuel

WASHING SODA

  • Washing soda is sodium carbonate containing 10 molecule of water of crystallisation.
  • That is, washing soda is sodium carbonate decahydrate.
  • The formula of washing soda is Na2CO3.10H2O.
  • A cold and concentrated solution of sodium chloride (called brine) is reacted with ammonia and carbon dioxide to obtain sodium hydrogencarbonate
process of formation of sodium hydrogen carbonate from brine ammonia water and carbon dioxide
process of formation of sodium hydrogen carbonate from brine ammonia water and carbon dioxide
  • On heating, sodium hydrogencarbonate decomposes to form sodium carbonate :
decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate into sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide and water
decomposition of sodium hydrogencarbonate into sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide and water
  • The anhydrous sodium carbonate obtained here is called soda ash.
  • Anhydrous sodium carbonate (soda ash) is dissolved in water and recrystallised to get washing soda crystals containing 10 molecules of water of crystallisation :
chemical reaction of formation of washing soda from soda ash and ten molecules of water.
chemical reaction of formation of washing soda from soda ash and ten molecules of water.

Uses of Sodium Carbonate (or Washing Soda)

  •  Sodium carbonate (or washing soda) is used as a “cleansing agent” for domestic purposes like washing clothes
  • Sodium carbonate is used for removing permanent hardness of water.
  •  Sodium carbonate is used in the manufacture of glass, soap and paper.
  •  Sodium carbonate is used in the manufacture of sodium compounds such as borax.

PLASTER OF PARIS 

  • chemical formula of plaster of paris is (CaSO4)2. H2O
  • On heating gypsum at 373 K, it loses water molecules and becomes
    calcium sulphate hemihydrate .
  • it is used by doctors as plaster for supporting fractured bones in the right position.
  • Plaster of Paris is a white powder and on mixing with water, it changes to gypsum once again giving a hard solid mass.
conversion of plaster of paris into gypsum on adding water to form hard mass
conversion of plaster of paris into gypsum on adding water to form hard mass
  • half a water molecule is to be attached as water of crystallisation in it.

USES OF PLASTER OF PARIS 

  • Plaster of Paris is used for making toys, materials for decoration
    and for making surfaces smooth
  • It is also used in medicine to make plaster casts to immobilize broken bones while they heal
  • It is used for plastering fractured bones and holding them on fixed positions
  • it is widely used by dentists
use of plaster of paris by dentists
use of plaster of paris by dentists

BLEACHING POWDER

  • chlorine gas is used for the manufacture of bleaching powder.
  • Bleaching powder is produced by the action of chlorine on dry slaked lime [Ca(OH)2].
  • Bleaching powder is represented as CaOCl2.
chemical reaction of formation of bleaching powder from chlorine and slaked lime
chemical reaction of formation of bleaching powder from chlorine and slaked lime

USES OF BLEACHING POWDER

  • it is used for bleaching cotton and linen in the textile industry, for bleaching
    wood pulp in paper factories and for bleaching washed clothes
    in laundry
  • it is used as an oxidising agent in many chemical industries
  • it is used to make drinking water free from germs
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