Allotropes and Important properties of Carbon

B:) Allotropes of carbon

different allotropes of carbon- diamond, graphite, fullerene and soot
different allotropes of carbon- diamond, graphite, fullerene and soot
  • Two or more different physical form of an element can exist is known as allotropes.
  • Carbon has three major allotropes
  • Allotropes have same chemical properties but different physical properties.
Diamond Graphite

Fullerene

each carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms forming a rigid three-dimensional structure. each carbon atom is bonded to three other carbon atoms in the same plane giving a hexagonal array. Each carbon atoms connected by single and double bonds so as to form a closed mesh, with fused rings of five to seven atoms to form a football like structure.
High melting point Low melting point High melting point
Hard in nature soft, slippery Lubricating material
Strong Vander wall forces Have weak Vander wall forces. Have weak Vander wall forces.
insoluble in water and organic solvents insoluble in water and organic solvents insoluble in water and organic solvents
Bad conductor of electricity Good conductor of electricity Able to conduct electricity
Chemical formula- C Chemical formula- C Chemical formula- C60

Note-fullerene named after Buck minster Fuller and used as radical scavenger and antioxidant.

IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF CARBON

  • Catenation- catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain or a ring shape.
  • Catenation occurs most readily with carbon, which forms covalent bonds with other carbon atoms to form longer chains and structures.
  • Tetravalency- carbon has a valency of four due to which it is known as tetravalent.
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