Bonding in carbon
- Most carbon compounds are poor conductors of electricity these compounds have low melting and boiling point, we can conclude that the bonding in these compounds does not give rise to any ions.
- In the case of carbon, it has four electrons in its outermost shell and needs to gain or lose four electrons to attain noble gas configuration.
- It could gain four electrons forming C4– anion.
- It is difficult for nucleus to hold 10 electrons
- It could lose four electrons forming C4+ cation.
- It require a large amount of energy to remove four electrons
- Due to above two problems Carbon share its valence electrons with other atoms of carbon or with atoms of other elements to form a bond.
Bonding in methane (CH4) –
- Carbon is tetravalent (four valence electrons).
- In order to achieve noble gas configuration, carbon shares these electrons with four atoms of hydrogen to form stable methane molecule.
Bonding in oxygen (O2) –
- oxygen atom has six electrons in valance shell and it requires two more electrons to complete its octet.
- So each atom of oxygen shares two electrons with another atom of oxygen to form molecular oxygen.
BONDING IN NITROGEN (N2) –
- Each nitrogen atom has 5 electrons in its valence shell and it requires three more electrons.
- So each atom of nitrogen shares three electrons with another atom of nitrogen and form triple bond.
- Bonds which are formed by the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms are known as covalent bonds.
- Covalently bonded molecules are strongest bonds within the molecule, but inter-molecular forces are weak.
- Since the electrons are shared between atoms and no charged particles are formed, such covalent compounds are generally poor conductors of electricity.