FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN CARBON

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN CARBON

  • Functional groups are specific substituents within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
  • Carbon also forms bonds with other elements (HETERO ATOM) such as halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur.
  • In a hydrocarbon chain, one or more hydrogen’s can be replaced by these elements, according to their valency.
different functional groups in carbon compound
different functional groups in carbon compound

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES

  • A series of compounds in which the same functional group substitutes for hydrogen in a carbon chain is called a homologous series.
  • As the molecular mass increases in any homologous series, changes in physical properties are seen the melting and boiling points increase with increasing molecular mass.
  • A physical property such as solubility in a particular solvent also varies.
  • The chemical properties remain similar in a homologous series because they are decided by functional group present in the series.
homologous series of carbon compound
homologous series of carbon compound

Nomenclature of carbon

IUPAC- INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY

MAIN CHAIN- ROOTWORD +PRIMARY SUFFIX+ SECONDARY SUFFIX

  • ROOTWORD- IT is name of number of carbon atom
  • C1- meth C5- pent
  • C2- eth C6- hex
  • C3- prop C7- hept
  • C4- but C8- oct

Naming a carbon compound can be done by the following method

  • Identify the number of carbon atoms in the compound and select the possible longest chain, bearing functional group if present.
identification of longest chain in IUPAC of compound
identification of longest chain in IUPAC of compound

 

  • In case a functional group is present, it is indicated in the name of the compound with either a prefix or a suffix.
  • If the name of the functional group is to be given as a suffix,
  • Propane – ‘e’ = propan + ‘one’ = propanone. (Delete the end “e” if the functional group starts with a vowel
  • If the carbon chain is unsaturated, then the final ‘ane’ in the name of the carbon chain is substituted by ‘ene’ or ‘yne’.
numbering and naming of compound having more than one functional group
numbering and naming of compound having more than one functional group
  • When two or more same substituents are present, numerical prefixes di, tri, tetra, or cyclo etc are used before the name of such substituents.
IUPAC naming of compound using prefix di, tri, terta
IUPAC naming of compound using prefix di, tri, terta

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