SOAPS AND DETERGENTS
- Soaps are Sodium or potassium salts of carboxylic acid are known as soap.
- Detergents are cleansing agents possessing ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids that are used to clean clothes in hard water.
Cleansing action of soap and detergents-:
- Action of these agents is due to ability to reduce surface tension of water.
- Soap and detergent molecules have two parts
- Non-ionic tail- this part is insoluble in water
- Ionic head-this part is water soluble
The ionic-end of soap interacts with water while the carbon chain interacts with oil.
- The soap molecules thus form structures called micelles where one end of the molecules is towards the oil droplet while the ionic-end faces outside.
- This forms an emulsion in water.
- The soap micelle thus helps in pulling out the dirt in water and we can wash our clothes clean.