Horticulture and Fibre Crops,Agricultural Reforms :Geography For Class 10th

Horticulture Crops


  • India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
  • India is s producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.

Fruits in great demand :

  • Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
  • Oranges of Nagpur and Cherapunjee.
  • Bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Lichi and Guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • Pineapples of Meghalaya
  • Grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
  • Apples, Pears, Apricots and Walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh
  • India produces 13% of the world’s vegetables.
  • It is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.


  • It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and subtropical areas.
  • Requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm and temperature above 25 degree Celsius.
  • It is an important industrial raw material.
  • It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya.
  • India ranks fifth among the world’s natural rubber producers.

Fibre Crops

  • Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
  • The first three are derived from the crops grown in the soil, silk is obtained from cocoons of silkworms fed on green leaves especially mulberry.
  • Rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture


  • India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant.
  • One of the main raw material for the cotton textile industry.
  • India is the 3rd largest producer of cotton in the world.
  • Cotton grows well in drier pars of black soil of Deccan plateau.
  • Requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for growth.
  • Kharif crop requires 8-10 months to mature.
  • Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana
  • Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh are major cotton-producing states

Agricultural Reforms

  • Agriculture has been practised in India for thousands of years.
  • Sustained uses of land without compatible techno-institutional changes have hindered the pace of agricultural development.


1.Why has India not improved in technical and institutional reforms in agriculture ?

  • In spite of development of sources of irrigation most of the farmers in large parts of the country, still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility in order to carry on their agriculture.
  • Agriculture needs serious technical and institutional reforms.
  • Collectivization, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari etc. were given priority to bring reforms in country after independence.

Land focus was the main focus of the First Five Year plan.

  • Right of inheritance had lead to fragmentation of land holdings.
  • Laws of land reforms were enacted but laws of implementation were lacking.

2. What were the steps taken by government in agricultural reforms?

  • Government of India embarked upon introducing agriculture reforms to improve Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Green Revolution based on use of package technology and White Revolution(Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve Indian agriculture.
  • But this led to the concentration of development in few selected areas.
  • Therefore, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development program was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms.
  • Provisions for crop insurance against calamities, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and bank for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some steps taken.

Other steps taken :

  • Kissan Credit Card(KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme(PAIS) are some other schemes
  • introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
  • Moreover, special weather bulletins and agriculture programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television.
  • The Government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crop to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middleman

3. “Agriculture is the mainstay of the Indian economy.” Explain this statement.

  • Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy.
  • Agricultural share in providing employment and livelihood to the population continues to be
    as high as 63 per cent (2001).
  • Government is providing facilities like irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanisation
    subsidy on fertilisers.
  • Reduction of import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the

4. What does ‘Horticulture’ mean? Which crops are grown under horticulture in India?
Ans. Horticulture is the practice of production of both fruit and vegetable crops. India is a producer of
tropical as well as temperate fruits. Some of the major crops are:
(i) Mangoes: Many varieties of mangoes lie Safeda, Dussehri, Langda, Sindoori, etc. are grown
in Maharashtra, U.P., Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal.
(ii) Oranges: Nagpur and Cherrapunjee are famous for orange varieties of India.
(iii) Bananas of various qualities are grown in Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
(iv) Litchi and Guava are famous in parts of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Bihar.
(v) Pineapple in Meghalaya and Grapes are grown in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra.
(vi) Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts are mainly temperate fruits and are grown in J&K and
Himachal Pradesh and are in great demand all over the world.
(vii) Vegetables: India produces about 13 per cent of the world’s vegetables. It is an important
producer of peas, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potatoes.

There is a potato institute in Shimla where the study is made on various qualities of potatoes grown in India

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