- Personal communication and mass communication including television, radio, press, films, etc. are the major means of communication in India.
- The Indian postal network is the largest in the world. It handles parcels as well as personal written
- Cards and envelopes are considered first-class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air.
- The second-class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport.
- To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently.
- They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.
- India has one of the largest telecom networks in Asia. more than two-thirds of the villages in India
have already been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) telephone facility.
- Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies.
- All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people, spread over different parts of the country.
- It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports, etc. for people of
different age groups.
- India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually. They are of different types depending upon their periodicity.
- India is the largest producer of feature films in the world.
- The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.
- The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as a trade.
- Trade between the two countries is called international trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes.
- The local trade is carried in cities, towns and villages, state-level trade is carried between two or more
- Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country.
- Export and import are the components of the trade.
- The balance of trade of a country is the difference between its export and import. When the value of export exceeds the value of imports, it is called a favourable balance of trade and vice- versa.
- India has trade relations with all the major trading blocks and all geographical regions of the world.
- The commodities exported from India to other countries include gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, agriculture and allied products, etc.
- The commodities imported to India include petroleum crude and products, gems and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic items, machinery, agriculture.
- India has emerged as a software giant at the international level and it is earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology.
Tourism as a Trade
- Tourism in India has grown substantially over the last three decades.
- Tourism promotes national integration, provides support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits.
- It also helps in the development of an international understanding of our culture and heritage.
- Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, eco-tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical
tourism and business tourism.
- There is a vast potential for the development of tourism in all parts of the country.
1. Define the term ‘tourism’. Why is tourism known as trade? Explain. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. The definition of tourism is “The cultural, recreational and commercial visits to places of interest
in a country is known as tourism”. Tourism is known as trade.
(i) Foreign tourist arrivals in the country contributing `64,889/- crore of foreign exchange in 2010.
(ii) More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry
(iii) Tourism provides support to local handicrafts.
(iv) Foreign tourists visit India for medical tourism and business tourism.
(v) Helps in the growth of national income and integrity
2. What is trade? Explain the importance of international trade. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Trade: The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as a trade.
(i) International trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity.
(ii) It is considered the economic barometer for a country.
(iii) As the resources are space-bound, no country can survive without international trade.
(iv) Countries have trade relations with the major trading blocks.
(v) Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information
3. ‘‘Dense and efficient network of transport is a prerequisite for trade.’’ Examine the statement. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. A dense and efficient network of transport is a prerequisite for trade as:
(i) They provide trade and connectivity facilities.
(ii) Railways, airways, waterways, etc. have been contributing to its socio-economic progress in
(iii) The trades from local to international levels have added to the vitality of its economy.
(iv) It has enriched our lives.
(v) It has added substantially to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.
(vi) The world has been converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast-moving
4. Which tourisms attract foreigners to India?
Ans. Foreign tourists visit India for heritage tourism, ecotourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism. Agra (UP), Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu & Kashmir and temple towns of South India are important destinations of foreign tourists. There is a vast potential of tourism development in the north-eastern states and the interior parts of Himalayas, but due to strategic reasons, these have not been encouraged so far. However, there lies a bright future ahead for this upcoming industry.
5. What are the various means of mass communication used in India?
Ans. Various means of mass communication used in India are:
(i) It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films.
(ii) All India Radio broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional or local languages.
(iii) Doordarshan, the national television channel of India broadcasts a variety of programmes
ranging from entertainment, education to sports, etc.
(iv) India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually.
(v) Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects.
(vi) India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. It produces short films, video feature
films and video short films.
6. “Information and Communication technology has played a major role in spreading out production of services across countries.” Justify the statement with examples. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Technology stimulated the globalization process:
(i) Improved transportation technology has made much faster delivery of goods across long-distance at a lower cost.
(ii) Goods are placed in the containers that can be loaded intact onto ships, railways, planes and trucks.
(iii) Technology in the areas of telecommunication, computers, and the internet has been changing rapidly.
(iv) Telecommunication facilities are used to contact one another around the world.
7. What is India’s status in the making of feature films?
Ans. India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. It produces short films, video feature films and video short films. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films.
8. Give three advantages of personal communication.
Ans. Three advantages of personal communication are:
(i) It keeps you in touch with your near and dear ones.
(ii) Long-distance communication is also easier without physical movement of the communicator
(iii) It helps in integrating families.
9. How does India account for the largest telecom network in India?
Ans. India accounts for the largest telecom network in India as:
(i) More than two-thirds of the villages in India have already been covered with the Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) telephone facility.
(ii) In order to strengthen the flow of information from the grassroots to a higher level, the government has made special provision to extend twenty-four hours STD facility to every village in the country.
(iii) There is a uniform rate of STD facilities all over India. It has been made possible by integrating the development of space technology with communication technology.
10. ‘‘The advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic development.’’ Justify the statement. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans. ‘The advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic development :
(i) It is considered as the economic barometer of a country.
(ii) As the resources are space-bound, no country can survive without international trade.
(iii) A favourable balance of trade of a country indicates economic development.
(iv) International trade helps in the exchange of surplus goods with those of deficit countries.
(v) Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge.