Location of Industries
Classification of Industries
Industries may be classified as follows:
1. On the basis of source of raw materials used:
2. On the basis of their main role:
3. On the basis of capital investment:
4. On the basis of ownership:
5. On the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods:
Various types of industries
1. Agro-based Industries: based on agricultural raw materials. e.g. Cotton, jute, silk, woollen textiles, sugar and
edible oil, etc.
2. Textile Industry: The textile industry occupies a unique position in the Indian economy because it contributes significantly to industrial production, employment generation and foreign exchange earnings. It is the only self-reliant industry and has valued supply chain.
3. Cotton Textiles: In ancient India, cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques. After the 18th century, power-looms came into use. This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers.
4. Jute Textiles: India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.
Most of the mills are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli river due to proximity of the jute
producing areas, inexpensive water transport, supported by a good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate the movement of raw material to the mills, abundant water for processing raw jute, cheap labour from adjoining states.
5. Sugar Industry: India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the
production of gur and khandsari. The raw the material used in this industry is bulky, and in haulage its sucrose content reduces.
6. Mineral-based industries: Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials.
7. Iron and steel industry: is the basic industry since all the other industries — heavy, medium and light, depend on it for their machinery. Production and consumption of steel are often regarded as the index of a country’s development. It is a heavy industry because all the raw materials, as well as finished goods, are heavy and bulky
entailing heavy transportation costs. Most of the public sector undertakings market their steel through the Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL).
Market: Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel
industries concentration of iron and steel industries.
7. Aluminum Smelting: Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It has gained popularity as a substitute for steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries.
8. Chemical Industries: Fast-growing industry, both inorganic and organic sectors. The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.
9. Fertilizer industry: The fertilizer industry is centred around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers
(mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers and ammonium phosphate (DAP) and a combination of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P), and potash (K).
10. Cement industry: Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories etc.
11. Automobile Industry: It provides a vehicle for quick transport of good services and passengers. Trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles. After the liberalisation, the industry expanded due to increased demand.
12. Information Technology and Electronics Industry: The electronics industry covers a wide range
of products from transistor sets to television, telephones and many other types of equipment required by the
1. Give one difference between public and private sectors.
Ans. (i) The public sector is owned and operated by government agencies, e.g., BHEL and SAIL, etc.
(ii) Private Sector—These industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of
individuals, e.g., TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
2. Why are more cotton textile mills located in Gujarat and Maharashtra?
Ans. Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist
climate, etc., contributed towards its localisation.
3. Name the people who are provided employment opportunities by cotton textile industries.
Ans. Cotton farmers, cotton boll pluckers, workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing,
designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. People who have industries of chemical and dyes, mill
stores, packaging materials and engineering works.
4. Why has an aluminium metal great importance? [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Aluminium metal has great importance because:
It combines the strength of metals such as Iron with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.
5. How did the ‘Bailadila’ Iron ore field get its name? [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. The Bailadila hills look like the hump of an ox, hence ‘Bialadila’ name given to the iron-ore field.
6. . What problems are faced by the cotton textile industry?
Ans. The problems faced by cotton textile industries are:
7. What are the challenges faced by the sugar industry?
(i) The industry is seasonal, so getting labour becomes difficult.
(ii) India is still using old and inefficient methods of production, thereby, affecting its production.
(iii) There are transport delays in transporting sugarcane to factories, with the result that it loses
its sugar content.
(iv) There is a need to maximise the use of bagasse to face the problem of power break up.
8. “Though India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world, yet we are
not able to perform to our full potential.” Why? [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans. It is largely due to high costs and limited availability of coking coal. There is a low productivity of labour. Moreover, there is the irregularity of supply of energy and of course, the poor infrastructure.
9. “Jute industry is concentrated in the Hugli basin”. Validate the statement with three suitable reasons. [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]
Ans. Reasons for the concentration of jute mills along the Hoogly river:
10. Explain any two main challenges faced by the jute industry in India. Explain any three objectives of National Jute Policy. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans. Challenges faced by the jute industry:
(i) Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
(ii) To stimulate the demand for the products need to be diversified.
(iii) Stiff competition from the other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil etc.
The objective of the National Jute policy:
(i) Increasing productivity
(ii) Improving quality.
(iii) Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers.
(iv) Enhancing the yield per hectare.