Mineral and Energy Resources :Geography Lesson For class 10th

Mineral : A homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.

  • They are found in varied forms in nature.
  • Rocks are combinations of minerals.
  • A particular mineral that formed from a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms
  • Because of this different minerals have different colour, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density

Importance of minerals

  • They are indispensable part of our lives.
  • Life processes can’t occur without minerals.
  • The food we eat contains minerals.
  • Cars, buses are manufactured from minerals.

Non-Metallic Mineral


  • The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining.
  • Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining.
  • Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining.
  • Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling
  • Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying.

Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

  • In igneous and metamorphic rocks : The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. Examples: tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc.
  • In sedimentary rocks: In these rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt are the minerals found in sedimentary rocks.
  • By decomposition of surface rocks: Decomposition of surface rocks and removal of soluble constituents leaves a residual mass of weathered material which contains ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
  • As alluvial deposits: These minerals are found in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits. Examples; gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.
  • In ocean water: Most of the minerals in ocean water are too widely diffused to be of economic importance.
  • But common salt, magnesium and bromine are mainly derived from ocean waters

Ferrous minerals

(i)Iron ore –
– Backbone of industrial development.
– Magnetite is the finest ore & has 70% iron.
– Hematite ore has 50 -60 % iron content .
– Limonite ore has 40 -60 % iron content .
– Siderite ore has 40 -50 % iron content

Production of iron ore showing state wise share

(ii) Manganese –
– Used in manufacturing of steel & ferro
-manganese alloy , bleaching powder , insectides & paints .
– 10 kg manganese required to manufactured 1 tone of steel .
– Largest producer – Orissa .

Production of manganese showing state wise share


Non – ferrous minerals

(i) Copper –
– Production of cu is critically deficient in India .
– Cu is malleable , ductile & a good conductor .
– Used in electrical cables & chemical industries .
– Malghat mines in MP produce 52% of copper .
– Khetri mines in Rajasthan is also famous for cu production .

(ii) Bauxite –
– It is a clay like substance .
– Bauxite deposits formed by decomposition of rocks rich in aluminium silicates .
– Aluminium combines the strength of metals with extreme lightness & with good conductivity & malleability.
– Largest producer – Orissa (45%)

Production of copper & bauxite


Non-metallic minerals

(i)Mica –
– Made up of a series of plates or leaves.
-It can be clear, black ,green or brown.
– Mica deposits r found in the northern edge of Chota nagpur plateau.
-Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer

Rock mineral
– Limestone
– Found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium & magnesium carbonates.
– Found in sedimentary rocks.
-Raw material for cement industry.
– Essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

Production of limestone


Conservation of minerals

  • Minerals can be conserved in by the following measures:
  • Use of improved technologies to allow use of low grade minerals at low costs
    · Using substitutes
    · Use of scrap metals
    · Recycling of metals is good way in which the
    mineral resources can be conserved.
    -They can be used in a judicious manner

Energy resources

  • Understanding energy resources involves considering all types of energy source from various scientific and technological standpoints, with a focus on the uses, limitations and consequences of using energy that is available to humanity.

Conventional sources of energy

(i) Coal –

  • Used for power generation , to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs
  • India is highly dependent on coal .
  • Formed due the compression of plant material over million of years .
  • Lignite is a low grade brown coal , which is soft with high moisture content .
  • Coal that has been buried deep & subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal
  • Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal

(ii) Petroleum –

  • It is Major energy source in India after coal .
  • Provides fuel for heat , lighting & manufacturing industries .
  • Also found in fault traps between porous & nonporous rocks .
  • 63% of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High .
  • Assam is the oldest oil producing state .

(iii) Electricity –

  • It is mainly generated by 2 ways-
  • Hydro electricity is generated by fast flowing water .
  • Thermal electricity is generated by using coal, petroleum & natural gas. There r 310 power plants in India.

Non – conventional sources of energy

(i) Nuclear & atomic energy

– Obtained by altering the structure of atoms.
– Uranium & thorium r used for generating atomic or nuclear energy .

(ii) Solar energy
-Solar Energy is the energy received from the sun that sustains life on earth
-For many decades solar energy has been considered as a huge source of energy and also an economical source of  energy because it is freely available

(iii) Wind power
-Wind power is produced by using wind generators to harness the kinetic energy of wind.
– It is gaining worldwide popularity as a large scale energy source .
(iv) Biogas

  • It is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide it is a renewable fuel produced from waste treatment
  • Biogas is best used directly for cooking/heating,
  • light or even absorption refrigeration rather than the complication and energy waste of trying to make electricity from biogas

Tidal Energy

  • Floodgate dams are build across inlets to use ocean tides to generate electricity.
  • A 900 mw tidal energy power plant is set up at Gulf of Kuchchh by the National Hydropower Corporation.

Geo Thermal Energy

  •  The heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior is called Geo Thermal Energy.
  • The steam rising from earth’s surface due to the heating inside earth is used to generate electricity.
  • One such project is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh
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