Mineral and Energy Resources :Geography Lesson For class 10th

Mineral : A homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.

  • They are found in varied forms in nature.
  • Rocks are combinations of minerals.
  • A particular mineral that formed from a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms
  • Because of this different minerals have different colour, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density

Importance of minerals

  • They are indispensable part of our lives.
  • Life processes can’t occur without minerals.
  • The food we eat contains minerals.
  • Cars, buses are manufactured from minerals.

Non-Metallic Mineral

 

  • The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earth’s surface is called mining.
  • Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining.
  • Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining.
  • Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earth’s surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling
  • Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying.

Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

  • In igneous and metamorphic rocks : The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger occurrences are called lodes. Examples: tin, copper, zinc, lead, etc.
  • In sedimentary rocks: In these rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Coal, iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt are the minerals found in sedimentary rocks.
  • By decomposition of surface rocks: Decomposition of surface rocks and removal of soluble constituents leaves a residual mass of weathered material which contains ores. Bauxite is formed in this way.
  • As alluvial deposits: These minerals are found in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits. Examples; gold, silver, tin, platinum, etc.
  • In ocean water: Most of the minerals in ocean water are too widely diffused to be of economic importance.
  • But common salt, magnesium and bromine are mainly derived from ocean waters

Ferrous minerals

(i)Iron ore –
– Backbone of industrial development.
– Magnetite is the finest ore & has 70% iron.
– Hematite ore has 50 -60 % iron content .
– Limonite ore has 40 -60 % iron content .
– Siderite ore has 40 -50 % iron content

Production of iron ore showing state wise share

(ii) Manganese –
– Used in manufacturing of steel & ferro
-manganese alloy , bleaching powder , insectides & paints .
– 10 kg manganese required to manufactured 1 tone of steel .
– Largest producer – Orissa .

Production of manganese showing state wise share

 

Non – ferrous minerals

(i) Copper –
– Production of cu is critically deficient in India .
– Cu is malleable , ductile & a good conductor .
– Used in electrical cables & chemical industries .
– Malghat mines in MP produce 52% of copper .
– Khetri mines in Rajasthan is also famous for cu production .

(ii) Bauxite –
– It is a clay like substance .
– Bauxite deposits formed by decomposition of rocks rich in aluminium silicates .
– Aluminium combines the strength of metals with extreme lightness & with good conductivity & malleability.
– Largest producer – Orissa (45%)

Production of copper & bauxite

 

Non-metallic minerals

(i)Mica –
– Made up of a series of plates or leaves.
-It can be clear, black ,green or brown.
– Mica deposits r found in the northern edge of Chota nagpur plateau.
-Koderma Gaya – Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer

Rock mineral
– Limestone
– Found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium & magnesium carbonates.
– Found in sedimentary rocks.
-Raw material for cement industry.
– Essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

Production of limestone

 

Conservation of minerals

  • Minerals can be conserved in by the following measures:
  • Use of improved technologies to allow use of low grade minerals at low costs
    · Using substitutes
    · Use of scrap metals
    · Recycling of metals is good way in which the
    mineral resources can be conserved.
    -They can be used in a judicious manner

Energy resources

  • Understanding energy resources involves considering all types of energy source from various scientific and technological standpoints, with a focus on the uses, limitations and consequences of using energy that is available to humanity.

Conventional sources of energy

(i) Coal –

  • Used for power generation , to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs
  • India is highly dependent on coal .
  • Formed due the compression of plant material over million of years .
  • Lignite is a low grade brown coal , which is soft with high moisture content .
  • Coal that has been buried deep & subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal
  • Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal

(ii) Petroleum –

  • It is Major energy source in India after coal .
  • Provides fuel for heat , lighting & manufacturing industries .
  • Also found in fault traps between porous & nonporous rocks .
  • 63% of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High .
  • Assam is the oldest oil producing state .

(iii) Electricity –

  • It is mainly generated by 2 ways-
  • Hydro electricity is generated by fast flowing water .
  • Thermal electricity is generated by using coal, petroleum & natural gas. There r 310 power plants in India.

Non – conventional sources of energy

(i) Nuclear & atomic energy

– Obtained by altering the structure of atoms.
– Uranium & thorium r used for generating atomic or nuclear energy .

(ii) Solar energy
-Solar Energy is the energy received from the sun that sustains life on earth
-For many decades solar energy has been considered as a huge source of energy and also an economical source of  energy because it is freely available

(iii) Wind power
-Wind power is produced by using wind generators to harness the kinetic energy of wind.
– It is gaining worldwide popularity as a large scale energy source .
(iv) Biogas

  • It is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide it is a renewable fuel produced from waste treatment
  • Biogas is best used directly for cooking/heating,
  • light or even absorption refrigeration rather than the complication and energy waste of trying to make electricity from biogas

Tidal Energy

  • Floodgate dams are build across inlets to use ocean tides to generate electricity.
  • A 900 mw tidal energy power plant is set up at Gulf of Kuchchh by the National Hydropower Corporation.

Geo Thermal Energy

  •  The heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior is called Geo Thermal Energy.
  • The steam rising from earth’s surface due to the heating inside earth is used to generate electricity.
  • One such project is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh
Lesson Content
Scroll to Top

Sign in to edusaint

Login with your Social Account