1. On the basis of origin :
(i) Biotic (ii) Abiotic
2. On the basis of exhaustibility :
(i) Renewable (ii) Non Renewable
3. based on ownership :
(i) Individual (ii) Community (iii) National (iv) International
4. based on the status of development :
(i) Potential (ii) Developed (iii) Stock (iv) Reserve
1. On the basis of origin :
Abiotic resources: Resources that comprise of non-living things, such as rocks, minerals, etc.
2. On the basis of exhaustibility :
On The Basis of Development
On the basis of their distribution
On The Basis of ownership
Sustainable development: It means development should take place without damaging the environment and Development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.
Some Principles of Sustainable Development
Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels.
Multiple choice questions:
(i) Which one of the following type of resources is iron ore
(ii) Under which of the following type of resources can tidal energy be put?
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
- Intensive cultivation
- Over irrigation
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?
- Plains of Uttar Pradesh
(v) In which of the following states is black soil formed?
- Jammu and Kashmir
- Answer the following questions in 30 words:
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
Ans: The three states having black soil are: of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. The crop which is mainly grown in this soil is cotton. This soil is also called ‘Regur’ or black cotton soil.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
Ans: The river deltas of the eastern coast have alluvial soil.
The main features of alluvial soil are:
(a) These soils are very fertile and so ideal for cultivation.
(b) They contain adequate quantities of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which is good for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, and other crops.
(c) Alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
Ans: In hilly areas to control soil erosion the best practices are: contour ploughing which is ploughing along contour-lines, terrace farming techniques and using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.
(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples
Ans: Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. Examples of biotic resources are animals, plants, human beings, fish, livestock etc.
Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. Examples of abiotic resources are, water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc.
- Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain the land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
Ans: Land used by humans is known as land use. In India, land is mainly divided into agricultural land, forest land, pasture land, grazing land and waste land. Waste and barren lands are not used for cultivation purposes. Besides cultivation, lands are also used for non agricultural purposes like construction of roads, buildings and factories etc.
In India, 22.5% of the land is under the forest cover. The land under the net sown area is 45.24%. While 3.38% of land are permanent pastures and used for grazing, 12.01% of the total land is unculturable waste lands.
Land under forest has not increased since 1960-61 due to activities like deforestation, mining, quarrying, building of large dams and highways which involves clearing of forests.
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Ans: During the colonial era, imperial powers used their technological and military superiority to colonise the weaker nations. After colonizing them, they gained greater access to the country’s natural resources.
At present, advancement in technology has led to large scale production leading to over utilisation of resources. In India, technological advancement has led to greater exploitation and consumption of resources. Further, increase in the population of the country due to improved medical and health facilities has led to rapid consumption of the resources.
1. Give one difference between renewable and non-renewable resources.
|Renewable Resources||Non-Renewable resources|
|These are those which get renewed or replenished quickly.||Non-renewable resources are those which have limited stock.|
|Some of these are unlimited and are not affected by human activities.||Once the stocks are exhausted it may take thousands of years to be renewed or replenished.|
|Example: Solar and wind energy||Example: coal, petroleum and natural gas|
2.What is Agenda 21? List its two principles.
Ans: Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels.
Two principles are:
3. What is meant by the term “resource”? List the types of resources classified on the basis of its ownership.
Ans: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided it’s technologically accessible(maybe in future, if not presently), economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.
On the basis of ownership resources are classified as below:
4. Distinguish between stock and potential resources, Give one example of each.
5.” In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources”. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three examples
Answer- Yes, there are regions which are rich in certain types of resources, but are deficient in some other resources.
6. What are the three stages of resource planning in India