Resource and Development:Geography Lessons for Class 10th

Resource and Development

 

  • A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced
  • Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it’s technologically accessible(maybe in future, if not presently), economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.

TYPES OF RESOURCES

1. On the basis of origin :
(i) Biotic (ii) Abiotic

2. On the basis of exhaustibility :
(i) Renewable (ii) Non Renewable

3. based on ownership :
(i) Individual (ii) Community (iii) National (iv) International

4. based on the status of development :
(i) Potential  (ii) Developed (iii) Stock  (iv) Reserve

1. On the basis of origin :

Biotic Resources

  • These are obtained from the biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna,
    fisheries, livestock, etc.

Abiotic resources: Resources that comprise of non-living things, such as rocks, minerals, etc.

2. On the basis of exhaustibility :

Renewable resources-

  • These are those which get renewed or replenished quickly.
  • Some of these are unlimited and are not affected by human activities.
  • Example:  solar and wind energy.
  • Yet careless use of certain renewable resources like water, soil and forest can affect their stock.
  • Shortage and drying up of natural water sources is a major problem in many parts of the world today.

2. Non-renewable-

  • Non-renewable resources are those which have limited stock.
  • Once the stocks are exhausted it may take thousands of years to be renewed or replenished.
  • Example: Coal, petroleum and natural gas are some examples

On The Basis of Development

Developed resources-

  • Actual resources are those resources whose quantity is known.
  • These resources are being used in the present.
  • The rich deposits of coal in the Ruhr region of Germany and petroleum in West Asia, the dark soils of the Deccan plateau in Maharashtra are all actual resources.

Potential resources-

  • Potential resources are those whose entire quantity may not be known and these are not being used at present.
  • These resources could be used in the future.
  • The uranium found in Ladakh is an example of a potential resource that could be used in the future.
  • High-speed winds were a potential resource two hundred years ago. Today they are an actual resource and wind farms generate energy using windmills like in the Netherlands.

Stock-

  • Materials in the environment have the potential to satisfy human needs, but not accessible due to lack of technology.
  • For example, water is a compound of two gases; hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen can be used as a rich
    source of energy. But we do not have advanced technical ‘know-how’ to use it for this purpose.

Reserve-

  • The subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technology but not started yet.
  • These can be used for meeting future requirements.
  • The water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.

On the basis of their distribution

  • Ubiquitous- Resources that are found everywhere like the air we breathe are ubiquitous.
  • Localized-Resources those which are found only in certain places are localized, like copper and iron ore.

On The Basis of ownership

  • Individual resources: The resources owned privately by individuals.
  • Community-owned resources: Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community.
  • National resources: All the resources, which are present in the political boundary of a nation up to 12 nautical in the ocean from the coast.
  • International resources: The resources that do not belong to any individual country.

PROBLEMS CREATED BY INDISCRIMINATE USE OF RESOURCE BY MAN

  • Many resources got depleted. Ex: Forest
  • Resources got accumulated in the hands of a few people.
  • The society is divided into rich and poor.
  • Global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental degradation are other problems.

Sustainable development: It means development should take place without damaging the environment and Development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.

Some Principles of Sustainable Development

  • Respect and care for all forms of life
  • Improve the quality of human life
  • Conserve the earth’s vitality and diversity
  • Minimize the depletion of natural resources
  • Change personal attitude and practices toward the environment
  • Enable communities to care for their environment.

Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels.

Back Exercise:

Multiple choice questions:

(i) Which one of the following type of resources is iron ore

  1. Renewable
  2. Flow
  3. Biotic
  4. Non-renewable

Non-renewable

(ii) Under which of the following type of resources can tidal energy be put?

  1. Replenishable
  2. Human-made
  3. Abiotic
  4. Non-recyclable

Replenishable

(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?

  1. Intensive cultivation
  2. Deforestation
  3. Over irrigation
  4. Overgrazing

Over irrigation

(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?

  1. Punjab
  2. Plains of Uttar Pradesh
  3. Haryana
  4. Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand

(v) In which of the following states is black soil formed?

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Gujarat
  3. Rajasthan
  4. Jharkhand

Gujarat

  1. Answer the following questions in 30 words:

(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.

Ans: The three states having black soil are: of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. The crop which is mainly grown in this soil is cotton. This soil is also called ‘Regur’ or black cotton soil.

(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.

Ans: The river deltas of the eastern coast have alluvial soil.

The main features of alluvial soil are:

(a) These soils are very fertile and so ideal for cultivation.

(b) They contain adequate quantities of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which is good for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, and other crops.

(c) Alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.

 

(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?

Ans:  In hilly areas to control soil erosion the best practices are: contour ploughing which is ploughing along contour-lines, terrace farming techniques and using strips of grasses to check soil erosion by wind and water.

 

(iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples

Ans: Biotic Resources: The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and have life are called Biotic Resources. Examples of biotic resources are animals, plants, human beings, fish, livestock etc.

Abiotic Resources: The resources which are composed of non-living things are called Abiotic Resources. Examples of abiotic resources are, water, minerals, metals, wind, solar energy etc. 

 

  1. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Explain the land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?

Ans: Land used by humans is known as land use. In India, land is mainly divided into agricultural land, forest land, pasture land, grazing land and waste land. Waste and barren lands are not used for cultivation purposes. Besides cultivation, lands are also used for non agricultural purposes like construction of roads, buildings and factories etc.

In India, 22.5% of the land is under the forest cover. The land under the net sown area is 45.24%. While 3.38% of land are permanent pastures and used for grazing, 12.01% of the total land is unculturable waste lands.

Land under forest has not increased since 1960-61 due to activities like deforestation, mining, quarrying, building of large dams and highways which involves clearing of forests.

 

(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?

Ans: During the colonial era, imperial powers used their technological and military superiority to colonise the weaker nations. After colonizing them, they gained greater access to the country’s natural resources.

At present, advancement in technology has led to large scale production leading to over utilisation of resources. In India, technological advancement has led to greater exploitation and consumption of resources. Further, increase in the population of the country due to improved medical and health facilities has led to rapid consumption of the resources.

Previously Asked questions in the Board Exam From this Topic

1. Give one difference between renewable and non-renewable resources.

Ans: 

Renewable Resources Non-Renewable resources
These are those which get renewed or replenished quickly. Non-renewable resources are those which have limited stock.
Some of these are unlimited and are not affected by human activities. Once the stocks are exhausted it may take thousands of years to be renewed or replenished.
Example: Solar and wind energy Example: coal, petroleum and natural gas

2.What is Agenda 21? List its two principles.

Ans: Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit (UN Conference on Environment and Development) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels. 

Two principles are:

  1. To combat environmental damage, poverty, diseases through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
  2. Every local government should draw its own local agenda 21.

3. What is meant by the term “resource”? List the types of resources classified on the basis of its ownership.

Ans: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided it’s technologically accessible(maybe in future, if not presently), economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.

On the basis of ownership resources are classified as below:

  • Individual resources: The resources owned privately by individuals.
  • Community-owned resources: Resources which are accessible to all the members of the community.
  • National resources: All the resources, which are present in the political boundary of a nation up to 12 nautical in the ocean from the coast.
  • International resources: The resources that do not belong to any individual country.

4. Distinguish between stock and potential resources, Give one example of each.

Ans: Stock-

  • Materials in the environment have the potential to satisfy human needs, but not accessible due to lack of technology.
  • For example, water is a compound of two gases; hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen can be used as a rich
    source of energy. But we do not have advanced technical ‘know-how’ to use it for this purpose.

Reserve-

  • The subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technology but not started yet.
  • These can be used for meeting future requirements.
  • The water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.

5.” In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources”. Do you agree with the statement? Support your answer with any three examples

Answer- Yes, there are regions which are rich in certain types of resources, but are deficient in some other resources.

  • Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
  • Arunachal Pradesh has an abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.
  • Rajasthan is endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
  • Ladakh has a rich cultural heritage but lacks in water resources and infrastructure.

6. What are the three stages of resource planning in India

  • Ans. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
  • Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional
    set up for implementing resource development plans.
  • Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

Find the NCERT Solution of this chapter here .

Free Test for Social Science Class 10th NCERT

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