Table of Contents

Soil Composition

  • Ninety percent of the world population occupies only thirty percent of land area.
  • The remaining seventy percent of the land is either sparsely populated or uninhabited.
  • All the economic activities are performed on land.
  • The soil cover on the land is essential for plant growth.
  • So land is necessary for agriculture.
  • The land is also used to set up industrial units

Lands under Different relief feature

  • PLAINS – 43%
  • MOUNTAINS – 30%
  • PLATEAUS – 27%
  • 43% of India’s land area is plain.

Causes of Land Degradation

  • Large scale soil erosion caused by running water and wind.
  • Dumping of waste materials from mining centers and industrial units.
  • Over irrigation leads to an increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
  • Overgrazing by animals and deforestation by man.
  • Wastewater from the industrial units pollutes the lands.
  • Mineral processing like grinding of limestone for the cement industry and calcite and soap stone for ceramic industry creates a lot of dust.
  • This dust is deposited in the neighboring land

Conservation of Land

  • Soil erosion can be prevented by ending deforestation, controlling grazing, encouraging afforestation and practicing terrace farming in hilly areas.
  • Preparation of shelter belts of plants and stabilizing of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes will help to prevent land degradation in deserts.
  • Mining activities should be controlled. New technology which reduces wastage can be adopted.
  • Industrial waste should be chemically treated to remove the harmful substances
  • Urban waste should be used for the production of biogas and bio-manure.
  • Over irrigation should be stopped and new method of irrigation should be followed

Soil Profile and Layers of Soil

Factors Affecting Soil Formation


Types of Soils in India


  • Alluvial soil is the most fertile and widespread soil found in India.
  • It is formed due to the deposition of fine silt called alluvium by the rivers.
  • It is found in the northern plains, Gujarat plains and the coastal plains
  • It consists of sand, silt and clay.
  • It is divided into Khadar and Bangar [new alluvium and old alluvium]
  • It contains soil nutrients such as Potash, phosphoric acid and lime.
  • So, it is fertile and good for the growth of sugarcane, rice, wheat and pulses.


  • Regur soils are called black cotton soils because they are black in color and are very good for cotton cultivation.
  • It is made up of extremely fine clayey materials.
  • It has the capacity to hold moisture for a long time.
  • These soils develop deep cracks in summer.
  • This helps in the aeration of the soil.
  • This soil is sticky.
  • It is mainly found in the Deccan Trap region of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
  • It is formed due to the weathering of volcanic rocks.
  • It is very rich in potash, calcium carbonate, magnesium and lime. It is poor in phosphoric content


  • Red soils are formed due to the weathering of crystalline igneous rocks under low rainfall conditions.
  • It is red in color because of the presence of iron in it.
  • It is found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, and Jharkhand.

Play and write types of Soil in the Image


  • The word laterite originated from the Latin word later which means brick.
  • Laterite soil is formed due to intense leaching caused by tropical rainfall.
  • Humus content is less because the micro-organisms get destroyed due to high temperature.
  • This soil can be cultivated by using manure and fertilizers.
  • It is good for the cultivation of tea, coffee, and cashew nut.
  • It is found in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Assam


  • Arid soils are red or brown in color.
  • They are sandy and saline.
  • Humus and moisture contents are very less.
  • They can be cultivated after irrigation.
  • Kankar layer in the soil prevents the water from seeping underground.


  • Forest soils are found in hilly and mountainous regions.
  • They are loamy and silty in valleys and coarse in the upper slopes
  • In the Himalayas, they suffer denudation and are acidic with low humus content.
  • The soils found in the lower slopes of the valley are fertile.

Map Works on Types of Soil Class 10th

  • Drag the soil types in the map near their location.
  • Play with the maps till you remember the location of soil types and their place on the map. 
  • Again Practice and Practice 🙂 🙂 


Removal of topsoil from one place to another by natural agencies is called soil erosion.

  • It is caused by running water and wind.
  • Deforestation, overgrazing, and unscientific agricultural practices are responsible for large
    scale soil erosion.
Gully Erosion. Types of Erosion are. Raindrop Splash. Sheet and Rill Erosion. Gully Erosion. Wind Erosion.

Gully Erosion

  • The rainwater when moves down on an uneven land scoop away the soil and form deep channels called gullies.
  • This type of erosion is called gully erosion.
  • A land that is broken into many small parts by the gullies is called bad land.
  • A bad land is unfit for cultivation and for other economic activities

Sheet Erosion

  • Some times water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope.
  • The water takes away the topsoil.
  • This type of erosion is called sheet erosion


  • Contour ploughing reduces the flow of water and prevents soil erosion.
  • In hilly areas, terraced farming should be followed.
  • Strip farming helps to reduce the force of winds.
  • Shelterbelts of plants around the fields reduce soil erosion.
  • Afforestation should be practised on a large scale and deforestation should be stopped.
  • Overgrazing by animals should be avoided

Previously Asked Questions on Soil Types in Class 10th Exam

1.Explain resource planning

2. What steps can be taken to prevent soil erosion in hilly areas

3.what are the main advantages of India’s land under a variety of relief features

4.Mention any three features of arid soil

5.what does the term ‘sustainable economic development’ means? how can we eradicate irrational consumption and overutilization of resources?

Free Test for Social Science Class 10th NCERT

Free Test for Social Science Class 10th NCERT

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