During partition and After Ncert Class 8th


To show partition

  • During the partition in 1947, a massive transfer of population took place across the new border, resulting in an increased population and change in the culture of Delhi.
  • A lot of riots took place and the number of people was killed, in place of displaced Muslim from Delhi a large number of Sikh and Hindu refugee came to Delhi.
to show people during migration
Trains after the partition of India
  • Refugees roamed the streets of Shahjahanabad, searching for empty homes to occupy. The terrorised migrants lived in makeshift camps till they could leave for Pakistan.
To show Refugee Camps
Refugee Camps
  •  New colonies like Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar were set up with the coming up of migrants, shops and stalls were set up to cater to demands of the migrants; schools were also opened.
  • There was a marked difference between the skills of refugees and the new migrants coming to Delhi who was rural landlords, lawyers, teachers and small shopkeepers.
  • The large migration from Punjab changed the social milieu of Delhi, an Urban culture based on Urdu was overshadowed by new tastes and sensibilities in art, culture and life.

The Old City

  • The old city of Shahjahanabad had canals which were used not just to get fresh water supply but also provided water for domestic uses.

to show old Delhi

  • These canal systems were avoided in the 19th century New Delhi. The system of wells also broke down, and channels to remove household waste were damaged.
  • The broken-down canals along with rising population were bad news for the city.
  • At the end of the 19th-century new system of open surface, drains was introduced, it was also soon overburdened. There was overflowing of drains along with stench from roadside privies.
  • The Delhi Municipal Committee was unwilling to spend money on good drainage, while in New Delhi area millions of rupees were being spent on the drainage system.
  • The Mughal aristocracy in 17th-18th centuries used to live in grand mansions, with beautiful gateways, open courtyards called Havelis, which could accommodate many families. E.g Qamar-al-din
to show haveli
A restored Haveli of Dharampura, New Delhi
  • Mughal amirs were unable to maintain these large establishments under the British rule, hence they began to sell, many converted to shops while other decayed.
  • The colonial bungalows were quite different from the Havelis, they were meant for nuclear families with separate dining and bedrooms, wide verandahs.
to show colonial bunglows
Colonial Bungalow

Municipal Planning

to show NDMC

  • The Census of 1931 revealed that the old Delhi was horribly crowded while New Delhi had very less population.
  • In 1888 an extension scheme called the Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme was planned by Robert Clarke for Old Delhi residents, the idea was to draw residents from Old city to new type market.
  • Streets were grid-patterned and of identical width, size and character. The land was divided into regular areas for construction of neighbourhoods.
  • This development was called Clarkegunj and it remained incomplete and did not help to decongest the Old City. Even in 1912 water supply and drainage was so poor.
  • The Delhi Improvement trust was set up in 1936 and it built areas like Daryaganj South for wealthy Indians.
  • Houses were planned around parks, private spaces within the houses were made for the families.
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