a) In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialisation- TRUE
(b) Surat and Masulipatnam developed in the nineteenth century – FALSE
Explanation: Surat, Machlipatnam and Seringapatam were developed in the 19th century.
(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities – FALSE
Explanation: Fewer people used to live in the cities during the 20th century.
(d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years – TRUE
(e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi – FALSE
Explanation: On the opposite more money was spent on the cleaning of New Delhi
(a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the Jama Masjid
(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker.
(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as unhygienic and unhealthy.
(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme was devised.
3. Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.
|It had broad roads, non-crowded areas, well-planned and maintained parks||It has crowded narrow streets, unmanaged pavillions and no parks|
|It had a good water supply and more money was spent on the drainage system here.||It had a poor water supply, no canal system and poorly built drainage system.|
|It was clean and have bungalows with private spaces.||It was stinky with overflowing drains and damaged Havelis, made for big families.|
4. Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras.
In the white areas, the British or the royal and wealthy people used to live in Madras.
5. What is meant by de-urbanisation?
In the late 18th century, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras rose in importance as Presidency cities. They became the centres of British power and the smaller cities declined.
Many towns manufacturing specialised goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres.
Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres of administration emerged. This process is described as de-urbanisation.
6. Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?
The British had understood the importance of Delhi after the revolt of 1857, also Delhi was the main entre of Mughal administration and hence in 1877, Viceroy Lytton organised a Durbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India to show the might and power of British over the Mughals.
7. How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?
In 1888 plans were drawn to extend the Old City of Delhi. A scheme called the Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme was planned by Robert Clarke. The plan had a market square around which shops were built. Streets were built in a grid pattern and were identical in width, size and character. The land was divided into regular areas for the construction of neighbourhoods.
In 1936, the Delhi Improvement Trust was set up and it built areas like Daryaganj South for wealthy Indians. Houses were built around parks and houses have privacy for the family in accordance with the new laws.
8. How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?
Fierce riots started after Indian Independence and Partition, thousands of people were displaced and many of them were killed, looted and burned. Muslims left Delhi for Pakistan and Sikh and Hindu refugees came from Pakistan. As a result, the population of Delhi swelled, and also the mix of Delhi changed after this, the old Urdu culture was overshadowed with the new tastes and sensibilities, in food, dress and the arts.
Delhi became a city of refugees as nearly 5,00,000 people entered Delhi from Pakistan. Refugees roamed the streets of Shahjahanabad, searching for empty homes to occupy and some stayed in the refugee camps. New colonies like Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar were set up at this time.
The skills and occupations of the refugees were quite different from those of the Muslims who left Delhi. Many of the Muslims who went to Pakistan were artisans, petty traders and labourers. The new migrants coming to Delhi were rural landlords, lawyers, teachers, traders and small shopkeepers.
Partition changed the lives and occupations of the migrants. The large migration from Punjab changed the social scene of Delhi completely.