4. What attracted European trading companies to India?
The cheap raw material and other goods like fine cotton, silk, spices like cloves, pepper which were at great demand in Europe and sold at higher prices in European markets earned a huge profit to the companies. This profit attracted the trading companies to India.
5. What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and East India Company?
After the set-up of its first factory in 1651 at the bank of Hooghly river in Bengal, the East India Company started expanding its area of trade and allowed merchants to settle near to the trading posts. They convinced the nawabs and gained duty-free trade rights in Bengal which they exploited and this, later on, was realized by the Nawabs which led to the beginning of the conflicts. The major reasons were:
a) The Nawabs denied giving further rights to the company
b) The Company was not ready to pay taxes and wanted duty free trade.
c) The nawabs wanted a part of the profit to them which was denied by the company
d) Company was disrespectful towards the nawabs, which made them more furious
6. How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?
Answer- Diwani rights gave Britishers right to collect their own revenues and which was a huge benefit to them from Bengal, this has also set the monopoly of Company to trade and with the profit helped them in exporting raw material to European markets, so it was an overall beneficial situation for the Company. Diwani also provided them with the right to decide on civil cases.
7. Explain the system of “Subsidiary alliance”.
The subsidiary alliance was a system under which the Indian ruler cannot have their own army instead to protect their territory an EIC’s personnel will be appointed to maintain an army will be and the maintenance allowance will be given by the ruler, failing or denying which will result into the transfer of the territory to the British.
8. In what ways was the administration of the company different from that of Indian rulers?
Let’s understand it with a table:
|Indian administration||Company administration|
||The ruler of the administrative unit was the Governor|
||The administrative units were called presidencies.|
||Governor-General was the head of the state|
||The system was more stratified and many regulating acts were made.|
9. Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army.
The Company’s army was more evolved and have learned through different wars. The army was called the Sepoy army, formed of peasants which were trained according to the European system via drills. The soldiers were deployed with muskets and matchlocks and infantry was given importance over the cavalry, unlike Mughals. The Company’s army was more disciplined and regulated.