The Periodization Ncert Class 8th



  • Diving history in periods is important to capture the characteristics and features of a particular time in history. 
  • Indian history was divided into three periods: Hindu, Muslim and British, by Scottish economist and political philosopher James millin 1817 in his book A History of British India. 
For showing James mill
James Mill
  •  Mill kept all Asian societies at a lower level of civilization than Europe and said that India was under the Hindu and Muslim despots, dominated by taboos, religion, and superstitions. 
  •  He suggested the British colonization of India as necessary in order to make it more civilized and lawful. 
  • The historians on other hand have divided history into Ancient, Medieval, and modern.  
  • It is borrowed from the West and here modern was defined as growth in all senses of modernity, like science, reason, liberty, democracy, and equality, while medieval was defined lacking all these aspects of modernity. 
  • This division is criticized as during British rule there was no equality, freedom, or liberty and thus it was referred to as the ‘colonial’ period by many historians. 


  • Colonization is defined as the subjugation of one country by another leading to social, economic, cultural, and political changes.
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