Crops, Indigo, British and India Ncert Class 8th

Indigo Plantation and The British- Ruling the countryside

To show indigo plantation

  • British thought of growing crops in India that Europe required along with the revenue.
  • They forced the cultivators in various parts of India to produce crops like jute (Bengal), Tea (Assam), Sugar( United Provinces), Wheat (Punjab), Rice and Cotton
  • They were trying the most on the cultivation of opium and Indigo.
  • Indigo is a plant which grows primarily in tropics, during 13th-century Indian indigo was used by cloth manufacturers across Europe.
  • The price of Indian indigo was high and the supply to Europe was also less, to meet the demand the cloth manufacturers used another plant called ‘woad.
for showing woad plant
Woad Plant
  • Woad was a temperate plant, easily available in Europe but the dye from woad was low in quality than indigo.
  • This created competition from indigo and thus the woad producers requested their governments to ban the import of indigo
  • The French also began cultivating indigo in St Domonique, Portuguese in Brazil, English in Jamaica, Spanish in Venezuela and many parts of North America
  • By end of the 18th century, the British started industrialisation expanding their cotton production which increased in the demand of the Indian dye again.

for showing industralisation

  • The existing supplies of dye from America and the West Indies declined due to certain reasons, and in return, the demand of Indian Indigo rose again
  • As a result of this high demand of Indian Indigo, by 1810,  95 per cent of Indigo was imported into Britain from India.
  • Indigo became a commercial crop, and thus officials, businessman and numerous other people invested in the Indigo plantations in India.
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