Indigo Cultivation Ncert Class 8th

Indigo Cultivation- Ruling the Countryside

  • Indigo was cultivated into two systemsNij and Ryoti.
    For indigo

      Indigo Plant
Nij Cultivation
  • In nij cultivation, the planter produced indigo on the land he directly controlled with hired labourers, lands were either rented or bought from Zamindars.
  • Indigo could only be cultivated on the fertile lands which were already densely populated. Planters needed large areas which were hard to find.
  • They tried to lease the lands around the indigo factory and evict the peasants, which created conflicts and tensions.
  • A large plantation also requires a large number of labourers, ploughs, bullocks and they were needed at the time of rice cultivation which again was a problem.
  • Due to these problems till the late 19th century, only 25 per cent of the land was under Nij system and rest was under the ryot system.
Ryot System
  • Under this system the planters forced the ryots to sign a contract (Satta), sometimes headmen were forced to sign the contract on behalf of the ryot.
  • Those who signed the contract got cash advances from planters at a lower interest, but this loan commits the ryot to cultivate indigo on at least 25 per cent of land under them.
  • The seeds, the drill was produced by planters and the cultivators had to prepare the soil, sow the seed and look after the crop.
  • When the crop was delivered to the planter, a new loan cycle used to start all over again, and this was a never-ending one.
  • The system harmed the cultivators badly, the loan put them into a huge burden and after the indigo cultivation, the land used to become unfit for growing any other crop like rice.
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