Solution Let’s Discuss- Ruling the Countryside
3.Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.
The Permanent Settlement was a land revenue system introduced in 1793 by East India Company. According to this settlement, the rajas and taluqdars were recognised as zamindars and they were asked to collect rent from the peasants and pay revenue to the Company. The main features of the Permanent Settlement system were:
- The amount of the revenue was fixed permanently, and will not change in future.
- There will be no increase in revenue demand of the state and thus the zamindar would benefit from increased production from the land.
- The revenue that had been fixed was so high which was hard to pay which lead to loss of Zamindari.
- When the cultivation increased, the income of the zamindars increased but there was no gain for the Company due to fixed revenue.
- This system eventually was replaced by the Mahalwari system.
4. How was the Mahalwari system different from the Permanent Settlement?
Let’s Understand with the table:
|It was introduced by Holt Mackenzie in 1822.
||It was introduced by Lord Cornwallis in 1793.
|It was mainly devised to collect revenue from the villages which were called ‘Mahal’.
||It ensured a regular flow of revenue to the Company.
|The estimated revenue of each plot within a village was added up to calculate the revenue of each Mahal.
||The revenue paid by each of the Zamindar to the Company was fixed.
|The village headman was in charge of collecting the revenue.
||The rajas and taluqdars were in charge of collecting revenue.
|The revenue was to be revised periodically.
||The revenue was fixed, and it won’t change in the future.
5. Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.
Two problems which arose with the new Munro or the ryotwari system of fixing revenue were:
- Driven by the desire to increase the income from land, the revenue demand was fixed too high which could not be met by the peasants.
- Ryots fled the countryside and the villages became deserted in many regions.
6. Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?
The ryots were reluctant to grow indigo because:
- Indigo needed very fertile lands, and they exhaust the soil making it unfit for production of other crops like rice.
- They were paid very low-prices for it.
- They found that they would never earn any profit from the indigo plantation.
- The cycle of loan given to them was never-ending imposing a huge financial burden on them.
7. What were the circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?
The circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal were:
- In March 1859, thousands of ryots in Bengal refused to grow indigo.
- They started protesting as they thought that they had the support of village headmen and Zamindars in their rebellion.
- The headmen were angry due to forced contracts and the Zamindars were unhappy from the increasing powers of the planters and long lease of land.
- The indigo farmers also believed that the British government would support them in their rebellion against the planters because the government did not want another rebellion after the Revolt of 1857.
- Later the Indigo Commission was constituted by the government which held the planters guilty of using coercive methods on the indigo cultivators and provided cultivators rights to refuse in future.
- This had led to the eventual collapse of indigo plantation in Bengal.