a) What term did the tribal people use for outsiders?
b) What are the other names of Jhum Cultivation?
Shifting cultivation, Bewar, Deepa, Podu etc.
c) Oil of seeds of which trees/ plants were used by the tribals for cooking?
Sal and Mahua
d) Where did the Songram Sangma revolt took place and in which year?
Assam, in 1906
e) Who were termed as Ravana by the Munda people?
Dikus and the Europeans.
a) Why did Britishers uncomfortable with Jhum cultivators?
The British found the Jhum cultivators as less civilised, as they kept moving from one place to another due to which they were not easy to control and also it was hard to collect revenue from such people.
b) What were the different sources of income and livelihood for tribal people?
Tribal people were mostly dependent upon the forest for their food and other activities. They used to collect forest products and sell them to traders or exchange them for grains as well.
c) Which tribe were reluctant to work as workers and why?
The people of the Baiga tribe was reluctant to work outside as workers or labourers, it was against their dignity. They saw themselves as the people of forests and used to believe that they have to live only on what forest gave them.
d) What was the concept of the reserved forest?
Reserved forests were the one where the British produce the timber which was widely used for various construction purpose and was in high demand. The activity of people was restricted in the reserved forest and they cannot collect fruits or hunt in these areas.
e) In whose company did Birsa spend some time in the company and what he does?
Birsa spent some time in the company of a prominent Vaishnav preacher, and he wore the sacred thread and began to value the importance of purity and piety.
a) Why was the Birsa movement significant?
The emergence of the Birsa movement started from a vision of a Golden age which the tribals imagined for themselves. the tribals were looked as inferior and always exploited but this movement was an example which showed that tribal people are equally strong and they can stand for themselves and stop the exploitation done by the British. The movement made the tribals look towards a world which is free of Dikus and full of peace where there is no rivalry recreating the past age of truth known as the Satyug. Although the movement does not go for so long and faded away with the death of Birsa Munda in 1990, still the movement was significant at least in two ways:
b) What was Jhum cultivation and why were tribals dependent upon this?
Jhum cultivation was a practice which is done on small patches of land, mostly in the forests. The cultivators cut the treetops to allow sunlight to reach the ground and burnt the vegetation on the land to clear it for cultivation. They spread the ash from the firing, which contained potash, to fertilise the soil. They used the axe to cut trees and the hoe to scratch the soil in order to prepare it for cultivation. They broadcast the seeds, that is, scattered the seeds on the field instead of ploughing the land and sowing the seeds. Once the crop was ready and harvested, they moved to another field. A field that had been cultivated once was left fallow for several years.
It was practised in the hilly forested tracts of north-east and central India. The tribal people practised it because they were depended on free movement within forests and they can easily use the land in the forest and used it to grow crops.