1.Which was the last one of the territories to be annexed under subsidiary alliance?
2. Which governor decided that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal king?
3. Where did Bahadur Shah Zafar used to stay during his rule?
4. Which monument was blown up by the British troops to enter Delhi?
5. British passed a law to stop the practice of Indian people?
1. How did the Company plan to bring an end to the Mughal dynasty?
First of all the name of the Mughal king was removed from the coins minted by the Company. In 1849, Governor-General Dalhousie announced that after the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the family of the king would be shifted out of the Red Fort and given another place in Delhi to live in and in 1856, Governor-General Canning decided that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal king and after his death, his descendants would be called as princes.
2. What reforms did the British introduce in the Indian society which were felt as a threat to their religion and culture by many Indians?
The British introduced several reforms like they passed laws to stop the practice of Sati and to encourage the remarriage of widows, they promoted English language education and in 1850, the Company passed a new law that made the conversion to Christianity easier. All these reforms made many Indian people realised that their religion and traditions were under threat.
3. What was the reason for the support of chiefs and rulers to the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar in the revolt?
The Mughal dynasty had ruled over a large part of the country. Most smaller rulers and chieftains controlled different territories on behalf of the Mughal ruler. Threatened by the expansion of British rule, many of them felt that if the Mughal emperor could rule again, they too would be able to rule their own territories once more, under the Mughal authority.
4. What did the British do to win back the loyalty of the people after they recaptured Delhi?
The British announced rewards for loyal landholders by allowing them to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands, while those who had rebelled were told that if they submitted to the British and if they had not killed any white people, they would remain safe and their rights and claims to land would not be denied.
1. Where and how did the rebellion spread to other regions of the country?
The British became very weak in Delhi and they were almost defeated and outnumbered by the rebel force. A spurt of mutinies began in several parts of India. Regiment after regiment mutinied and took to join other troops at nodal points like Delhi, Kanpur and Lucknow. After them, the people of the towns and villages also rose up in rebellion. They rallied around local leaders, zamindars and chiefs who were prepared to establish their authority and fight the British as they were unhappy from the taking away of their land rights and high tax revenue.
Nana Saheb, the adopted son of the late Peshwa Baji Rao who lived near Kanpur, gathered armed forces and expelled the British Garrison from the city. He proclaimed himself Peshwa and declared himself as Governor under emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar. In Lucknow, Birjis Qadr, the son of the deposed Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, was proclaimed the new Nawab. He too acknowledged the suzerainty of Bahadur Shah Zafar.
In Jhansi, Rani Lakshmibai joined the rebel sepoys and fought the British along with Tantia Tope, the General of Nana Saheb.
A situation of widespread rebellion also developed in the region of Awadh. Many new leaders also came up and joined the revolt. Ahmadullah Shah, a maulvi from Faizabad, raised a large force of supporters. He came to Lucknow to fight the British.
In Delhi, a large number of religious warriors came together to wipe out the white people. Bakht Khan, a soldier from Bareilly, took charge of a large force of fighters who came to Delhi. In Bihar, an old zamindar, Kunwar Singh, joined the rebel sepoys and battled with the British for several months.
In this manner, the revolt spread to the whole country.