Towards Civil Disobedience

From Chauri Chaura to John Simon

  • In February, 1922, Gandhi however called off the movement fearing of growing violence after the incident of Chauri Chaura.
  • Moderate politics by Motilal Nehru and C. R. Das by forming Swaraj Party again took place.
  • But leader like Gandhi, Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose resorted to mass movement, the radical way towards independence. In the 1920s, several developments took place.
  • Due to world economic crisis, prices for agricultural goods fell greatly.
  • Peasants couldn’t sell and pay their revenue. The countryside was in turmoil.
  • Again, the Simon Commission led by Sir John Simon under British Government arrived India in 1928 to look into the constitutional system of India.
  • Since there were no Indians there, it was not welcomed. Both Congress and Muslim League joined the protest giving slogans “Go Back Simon”.
(The protest against Simon Commission; source: Hindustan times)
(The protest against Simon Commission; source: Hindustan times)

Civil Disobedience Begins

  • In 1930, Viceroy Lord Irwin proposed a ‘dominion’ status to India and a Round Table conference to discuss a future constitution.
  • It didn’t satisfy Indian leaders and they became more vocal. In December 1929, under presidency of Nehru, Lahore session of Congress demanded ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence and declared 26 January 1930 as the Independence Day when people took vow for complete freedom.
  • Gandhi found another opportunity to start a mass agitation.
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