NCERT Class 8 polity Lesson 1 The Indian Constitution




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After this chapter students will able to learn:

  • Concept of Constitution.
  • What and why is the Indian Constitution?
  • Key Features of Indian Constitution.
  • Few Questions and Answers.


We all love to play games whether they are outdoor or indoor. Every game has a set of rules within them which helps players to play in a very fair way; we may call it FAIRPLAY. If there is a violation of the rules in the game it comes under fairplay violation and there are pre-decided punishments for violating the rules; same way the societies have their rules and it goes on the gravity of offence but CONSTITUTION is a meant for countries, organizations etc irrespective level of your society.

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  • India is the largest democratic country around the globe and is bounded by the set of rules known as Constitution; specifically known as Indian Constitution.
  • It’s a type of rule book for fair-play of the country for their citizens, governments etc.
  • If the rule is violated, punishment under the constitution in respect with the gravity of offence is provided by judiciary, police and other governmental bodies.
  • The provided punishments can not be overruled for the VIPs of the country i.e. ministers, bureaucrats, even to the PM and President of the nation because the law is same for everybody in the nation irrespective of the position and power.
  • There are Six (6) Fundamental Rights under the Constitution of India provided to each and every citizen of the nation.

After India became an Independent Nation, one thing remained to be done then was to work out the ways in which the democratic government would be set up in INDIA and the rules that would determine its functioning, this led to the birth of INDIAN CONSTITUTION.

Key Features of Indian Constitution


  • The word Federalism stands for more than one level of government in the country.
  • In India, we have the governments at the state level and at the centre.
  • Panchayati Raj system is the third tier of the government.
  • The meaning of separate state governments in each and individual states is their demography, regions, publics etc.
  • There are vast communities in India meant that a system of a government needed to be devised that did not involve any persons sitting in the capital city of New Delhi and making decisions for everyone.
  • The Constitution also specifies where each tier of government can get the money for the work that it does.
  • Under the concept of Federalism, the states are not only the agents of the federal government but they draw their authority from the constitution as well.
  • Every person in the democratic India is governed by laws and policies made by each of these levels of the government.

Parliamentary form of Government:

  • In India the tier of governments consists of representatives who are elected by the people.
  • The Indian Constitution guarantees universal adult suffrage for all citizens.
  • Under this, the people of India have a direct role in electing their representatives under voting rights provided to them by the constitution of India.
  • In this system, the role of president is primarily ceremonial and prime minister along with the cabinet and their effective power.
  • It leads to a close relationship between the legislature and to the executive.

Separation of Powers:

  • The Indian Constitution says, there are three parts of government i.e. legislature, executive and judiciary.
  • The legislature is all about our elected representatives.
  • The executive is the smaller group of people who are responsible for implementing laws, and running the government in a very feasible way.
  • Judiciary is meant for interpreting and applying the law with adjudicating upon controversies between citizen to citizen and between citizens and governments.
  • The constitution says each of these organs of the government should exercise their power which comes under their jurisdiction effectively.
  • These agencies should keep a check on the other organs of the government and this results in the effective balancing of the power among three.
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Fundamental Rights:

  • The fundamental rights stand as, “some of the basic rights given to every indian citizen.
  • It protects the citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of the power by the state.
  • The Indian Constitution assures the rights of every individual against the state as well as against other individual persons too.

There are 6 SIX fundamental rights given to the citizens by the Indian Constitution

  1. Right to Equality
  2. Right to Freedom
  3. Right against Exploitation
  4. Right to Freedom of Religion
  5. Cultural and Educational Right
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies
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  • A secular state is one in which the state does not officially promote any one religion as the state religion.
  • In simple language, secularism means ‘seperate’ from religion.
  • It highlights the dissociation of the state to any of the religion and gives full freedom to all religions and tolerance of all religions.
  • Emperor Ashoka, was the first great emperor to announce in early 3rd century B.C.that his state would not prosecute any religious sect.
Source: Google Images
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