NCERT Class 8 Lesson 8 Confronting Marginalisation

Confronting Marginalisation


In the last chapter we studied about the two different groups and their experiences of inequality and discrimination.

  • Though powerless, such groups have fought, protested and struggled against being excluded or dominated by others.
  • Religious solace, armed struggle, self improvement and education, economic uplift – there appears to be no one way of doing things.


  • Some of the ways in which groups and individuals challenge existing inequalities.
  • Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women and other marginal groups argue that simply by being citizens of a democratic country, they possess equal rights that must be respected.
  • We will look at how rights are translated into laws to protect groups from continued exploitation and we will also look at the government’s efforts to formulate policies to promote the access of these groups to development.

Topics in the chapter include

  1. Invoking Fundamental Rights
  2. Laws for the marginalised
  3. Protecting the Rights of Dalits and Adivasis
  4. Adivasi Demands and the 1989 Act
  5. Conclusion
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