The Indian Parliament is an expression of the faith that the people of India have in principles of democracy.
The Parliament in our system has immense powers because it is the representative of the people.
The Lok Sabha is usually elected once every five years.
The Rajya Sabha is usually elected once every six years.
Once elected, these candidates become Members of Parliament or MPs.
These MPs together make up the Parliament.
Once election to the parliament have taken place, there are few roles of parliament:
To select the National Government
The Indian Parliament consists of the President, the Rajya Sabha, and the Lok Sabha.
When the counting of the votes gets completed after the election, a proper list of candidates is being prepared belonging to each of the political parties.
The party which wants to form a government in the centre must have a majority of the seats. For instance there are 543 seats in the Lok Sabha (2 Anglo-Indian are nominated) in the Lok Sabha.
If a party has more than 272 seats(272 members or more) in the Lok Sabha after the proper counting of votes will get a chance to form a government at the centre level.
The Opposition in Parliament is formed by all the political parties that oppose the major party. The largest party amongst these parties is called the Opposition party for the majority party.
The most important function of the Lok Sabha is to select the executive. The executive is none other than a group of persons who work together to implement the laws made by the Parliament. This executive is often what we have in mind when we use the term government.
The Rajya Sabha functions primarily as the representative of the states of India in the Parliament. The Rajya Sabha can also initiate legislation and a bill is required to pass through the Rajya Sabha in order to become a law.
The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of various states. There are 233 elected members plus 12 members nominated by the President.
To control, guide, and Inform the Government
The Parliament, while in session, begins with a question hour. The question hour is an important mechanism through which MPs can elicit information about the working of the government.
By asking questions the government is alerted to its shortcomings, and also comes to know the opinion of the people through their representatives in the Parliament, i.e. the MPs. Asking questions of the government is a crucial task for every MP.
The Opposition parties play a critical role in the healthy functioning of a democracy. They highlight drawbacks in various policies and programmes of the government and mobilise popular support for their own policies.
The government gets valuable feedback and is kept on its toes by the questions asked by the MPs. In addition, in all matters dealing with finances, the Parliament’s approval is crucial for the government.
The MPs as representatives of the people have a central role in controlling, guiding and informing Parliament and this is a key aspect of the functioning of Indian democracy.
Law-making is a significant feature of Indian Parliament.
Law-making begins with the Introduction of the bill in the parliament; discussion is done at each and every point with detail.
Therefore, voting is done for the bill in ‘yes or no’ firstly in Lok Sabha and then the same procedure is done in Rajya Sabha.
If the bill gets passed in both the houses in a single-go therefore the bill is sent to the ‘THE PRESIDENT of INDIA’ and if he signs the bill after analysing each and every aspect.
This results in the formation of New Law. It can be done for the amendment in the existing laws.